Eric Chapdelaine
Student at Northeastern University Studying Computer Science.
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# The Class

What will we cover during this semester?

• This is a surface-level class

This class is hard in quantity not quality

The textbook has great time management advice in the preface

Office Hours

• Email to schedule

Midterms

• Tuesday, February 9th
• Tuesday, March 9th
• Friday April 2nd

Media Assignments

• You have 2 weeks to respond to the media

Bigger Assignments

• 6 More substantial assignments
• First two graded by DrAkula
• The rest will be graded by peers

Most people don’t finish PhDs

• Some PhD programs offers a masters degree along the way (often 2 years)

A doctorate is required to be a clinical psychologist

Psychometric psychologists

• Studying the methods used by other psychologists
• Devise new approaches to psychological research

How to Get into Graduate Study in Psychology

• Do research
• It will be mundane at first, but stick with it
• Ask to be a co-author on the publication of the work
• Go to functions
• If you’re doing research, try to attend meetings and present your work.
• Go to colloquia
• Join Psi Chi
• Do a co-op in DrAkula’s lab
• Have a 100% track record of co-ops getting into graduate school

You must complete 3 credits of research participation in order to pass the course.

Research

Username: First and last name

Password: nine-digit student id

Midterm:

The exam will be 100 minutes

Average is approx 45 minutes

• The Prologue
• Appendix B,
• Chapters 1-4

Go through the learning objectives

Go through the vocabulary words in the textbook.

Do the multi-media assignments

Midterm 1

# Introduction and Overview

What is psychology? A science

• 300 BC: Aristotle thinks about thinking (introspection)
• 1653 “study of the soul” (Philipp Melanchthon)
• Predict the behaviors of and explain the motivations of and manipulate the emotions of people

Humanist Psychology

• Maslow: need to help humans

Psychology’s Biggest Question:

• Nature vs. Nurture
• Biology vs. Environment and experience.
• Nurture works on what nature endows

Levels of Analysis

• In order to answer a question, you must first decide which level you want to answer it on
• The big 3: Biological, psychological, social-cultural

Apple is a human factors company

• When they make a feature, it is very easy to use which makes them a very valuable company

# The Scientific Method

There are three types of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics.

Ex. You need to run trials before you can put your drug out there. And it needs to be statistically better than what’s already out there.

## Statistics

On the air you can say a extreme lies (ex. “mile high pie”), but you can’t say a lie that sounds reasonable (ex. “8-inch-high-pie)–unless it’s true.

How things are presented make a huge difference.

Every time you simplify a finding, you sacrifice completeness

• Ex: Averages

### Averages

• Mean - Typically the arithmetic average.
• Median - 50th percentile, or middle number of a rank-ordered sequence
• Mode - Most commonly occurring value
• The Middle - The mean of the high and low end

### Bias

Bias in data means that a result will tend to be reported as either too high or too low.

The bell curve or normal distribution curve represents a population.

The mean and median can often not tell the same story: for example, if all of us have 5 dollars and one person walks in with 500 dollars and steals our money, the median went down and the mean went up.

### Variability

Variability is great is sports, but bad everywhere else. Averages derived from scores with low variability are more reliable than averages based on scores with high variability.

### Standard Deviations

Means and Standard Deviations are descriptives. They tell us about data.

When we calculate test statistics to decide if a difference is meaningful, we want to be sure that it is

• If we are 95% sure, then we say a difference is “significant”

The central limit theorem states that the distribution of the estimates of the mean drawn from any population – even one that is not normally distributed – will be approximately normally distributed if the sample is sufficiently large.

• We want the values to fall outside of the lines in a distributions like these so that we are 95% sure

Saying that an effect is significant doesn’t mean that the effect is large, only that we are certain that it exists.

The SD of the means that we would get if we kept sampling the population is called the standard error of of the mean (SEM).

The SEM decreases with the square root of sample size ($n$):

$SEM = \frac{SD}{\sqrt{n}}$

Thus, we get diminishing returns with increasing sample size.

• More is better, but every 1 added is less and less important

The population of your sample is very important

### Correlations

Correlations are defined by a coefficient called Pearson’s Product Moment and abbreviated “r”.

• $r$ can range from -1 to 1.
• The closer the magnitude of $r$ is to +/- 1, the more it is correlated

The square of $r$ is often taken as a measure of the proportion of the variability of one parameter.

• Ex. If the $r$ value of IQ and academic achievement is 0.5, then IQ makes up about 25% of your academic achievement

Correlation is the only thing to imply causation.

If an off correlation holds up over repeated studies, however, it is probably causal somehow.

Correlations are really sensitive to outliers

### Hindsight Bias

Hindsight bias is the phenomenon of seeing an event that already occurred as being easily predictable when, in fact, before it happened, it was not.

• This is a major issue in law: Amazon is the only Web vendor with “one click shopping.” Obvious?
• It is now

We also have a tendency to be overconfident. We must be:

• Curious,
• Skeptical, and
• Humble.

### Case Studies

Studying an individual or group to study a population of a whole.

For example, if a blind person is missing a part of their brain, then we can hypothesize that that part of the brain is responsible for seeing.

The plural of anecdotes is not results–but it is data.

### Experiments

In an experiment we typically have

• A control group, and
• One or more experimental groups

Independent Variables - The factor that is manipulated Dependent Variables - The factor that in (possibly) influenced by the Independent Variable

There are always bias; the best of us cannot help but insert our values into the interpretation.

### Ethics

We prioritize human health and happiness over that of animals. But what is the right balance?

The APA recommends that scientists:

• Obtain informed consent,
• Make efforts to protect their subjects from pain or discomfort
• Keep identifying information confidential, and
• Debrief.

# Psychobiology

There is a biological reason for everything psychological.

In order to understand a system, you need a more complicated system. Therefore, it’s hard to understand the brain with the brain.

“I think therefore I am”

• Meaning if we are in the Matrix, you’d still exist

The fundamental unit is the nervous system with the cell the fundamental unit of that.

## Neuron

Neuron: A nerve cell. A cell with a synapse.

We say a cell is hyper polarized if it is more negative than usual

We say a cell is depolarized if it is less negative than usual*

The language of neurons is both electric and biological.

### Synapse

The neurotransmitter acts like a “key” with special chemical “locks” called receptors.

### Neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine (ACh)

• Handles movement

Morphine

• Alleviating pain and inducing euphoria

Synthetic Neurotransmitter

• Creating artificial “keys” to unlock the “lock”
• Either creates an exact key OR close enough to jam the lock so the real key can’t get in

## Nervous System

Central Nervous System (CNS)

• The brain and the spine Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
• Everything else

Nerves are bundles of axons

Nerves

• Sensory
• Carry messages from the sense organs to the brain or spine for processing
• Motor
• Carry signals from the CNS to the muscles and organs
• Interneurons
• These are all those neurons between sensory and motor neurons (most neurons are interneurons)

### PNS: Somatic Nervous System

The somatic nervous system in the concious part – you have concious control (ex. Limbs).

### ANS: Automatic Nervous System

Unconscious functions (ex. Heart rate). However, this is a fuzzy line.

### CNS: Central Nervous System

“You” are your brain

“Ascending” signals are signals to the brain “Descending” signals are from the brain

### The Endocrine System

It “sets the tone”

Signals set by the endocrine system linger in the blood explains why feelings linger.

## The Brain

### The Old Brain

Instinctual impulses. We call it the old brain because it is present in (most) other animals.

• Breathing
• Heart-rate
• etc.

### The Limbic System

• The amygdala (Very important)
• Handles fear and emotions
• The hypothalamus - reward center of the brain. Activated, rats will pass out pushing a lever to stimulate the hypothalamus.
• Thirst
• Hunger
• and Sexual behavior

## The New Brain

Handles conciousness

### The Cerebellum (“The Little Brain”)

Handles motor functions

### The Cerebral Cortex

Frontal Lobe: Planning and thinking through actions

We know what certain parts of the brain by case studying of people who are missing that part of the brain.

For example, the frontal lobe is connected with planning and emotions.

Motor cortex, sensory cortex

Association Areas:

More than $\frac{3}{4}$th of the cortex is not one of those regions that receives direct sensory input or sends motor output. These areas are called association areas.

Visual and Auditory Cortex: Handles audio and visuals in a very organized manner

### Brain-Computer Interfaces

By using EEG, fMRI, or implanted electrodes, we can “eavesdrop” into what’s going on inside a living person’s brain.

The first writing assignment is due next Wednesday (February 3rd)

• Which movie is funnier, Airplane! or The Holy Grail?.
• Imagine a research project that you could conduct yourself
• What is your operational definition of funny
• For this purpose of this project, this means funny
1. Explain the problem to be addressed
2. Operationalize the variables under study, and
3. Outline the statistical approach that will be used to test the hypothesis.

### Plasticity

Describes the ability of the CNS to change as a result of insult or experience

Plasticity underpins the observation that the blind may appear to have keener hearing than the sighted.

Similarly, if a blind person reads braille with one finger, the part of the brain used for vision is not used for that finger.

Conclusion:

• Use it or lose it
• If you don’t use a certain part of your brain, it will take on a different purpose

### The Divided Brain

The Right Brain: is more so the animal brain – not very good at logic. Ex. Artistic creativity.

The Left Brain: More logic focused

Our brain is split and information is processed through the corpus callosum.

People with severed corpus callosum’s are given a screen to look at that says “HE*ART”.

• When asked to speak (left side processes) the word, they said “ART”
• When asked to point at the word (right side process), they pointed at “HE”

### Language

Reading, writing, speaking, singing. All are language skills.

Broca’s Area

• In the frontal lobe, is critical for speech generation.

Wernicke’s Area In the temporal lobe, is essential for generation cohererent speech

The Angular Gyrus:

• In the parietal lobe, is requires for the processing of auditory input

## The Nervous System II

People with isolated damage to the brain can ‘see’ without being aware of the sight.

• You can respond to things without being aware of them

Parallel processing: What your brain handles on its own (ex. Going for a walk.)

Serial Processing: Your concious thought (ex. 5+12)

Attention – serial processing – is selective. You can only focus on one thing at once.

• It’s hard to split your attention
• Ex. With gorilla basketball experiment

### Cognitive Blindness

The gorilla basketball experiment and distracted driving are cases of inattentional blindness.

Change bias: The idea that the brain can miss seemingly obvious, big changes.

• Switching experiment instructors and people didn’t notice that they were two different people

### Circadian Rhythm and Sleep

The SCN is our ‘biological clock’ that regulates your alertness and sleep

Before the age of 20, we are night owls

After 20, we are early birds

Falling asleep is actually an instantaneous process – there is no ‘half asleep’.

Here are the stages of sleep:

Here are the stages throughout the night:

The light bulb messes up our circadian rhythm.

Throughout our lives, our sleep changes:

REM rebound:

After sleep depravation, people have more REM sleep once they get sleep, indicating that it is the most important stage.

Sleep Loss

20% of high school students say that they fall asleep in class at least once a week

~60% of high school and college students are sleep deprived

Risks of lack of sleep:

• Shorter life
• Higher blood pressure
• Less stress
• Etc.

You also perform better driving.

Insomnia: Is the persistent difficulty with falling or staying asleep. Drugs and alcohol is bad to self-medicate. Instead try:

• Exercise,
• Cutting back on caffeine,
• Turning down the lights
• Practicing relaxation

Apnea: A period, up to a minute, where sleepers fail to breathe. They are then “jerked” awake by snoring.

Narcolepsy: The sufferer is overcome by overwhelming sleepiness. They often occur at very inopportune times, such as after exerting oneself by

• Laughing
• Playing sports
• Etc.

Night Terrors: Disease of children. Young children will awaken, talk incoherently and experience rapid heart and breathing rates. Typically, they do not remember anything in the morning. They are not in REM sleep which means that they are not dreams.

Sleepwalking/talking: Sleepwalkers are also usually children. It is genetic. They are also not typically acting out their dreams.

### Dreams

We now know when someone is dreaming (during REM sleep).

• After a trauma, people tend to have nightmares.
• Musicians dream frequently of music.

We are not concious when we dream, our unconscious minds are still running.

People are still aware of things that are going on:

• Spraying someone with mist will often cause them to dream about water

Dreams do not act as metaphors for our life’s problems.

We often rehearse the things that we did throughout the day in our dreams.

The amygdala determines and holds what is emotionally important.

Dreams are the result of our brain’s ‘housekeeping’ at night.

## Psychoactive Drugs

People who drink more, can drink more. This is because people develop tolerance.

As tolerance increase, people increase their dose (to get the same result). As you increase your tolerance, you experience withdraws.

Dependence:

There are two different dependencies: physical and psychological. As the name implies, physical dependencies cause physical discomfort.

We may be dependent on many things:

• Smartphones
• Exercise
• Sex
• Work
• etc.

But these aren’t addictions. We shouldn’t overstate or understate the dangers of drugs. Addictive substances aren’t necessarily going to ruin you. People also overcome addiction very frequently. There are more ex-smokers than smoking.

But addiction is still the leading cause of accidental death in the US.

There are three different types of drugs:

• Depressants
• Stimulants
• Hallucinogenics

Depressants:

Most common depressant is alcohol. The first thing to go is your frontal lobe – effects of reasoning. Slows down your body – slows down the fight-or-flight.

You forget what happens when you are drunk. When you are drunk, you can’t have REM sleep and therefore you can’t store things into your long-term memories. Drinking itself isn’t bad, but drinking can be dangerous if done unsafely.

Opioids:

Ex: opium, herion, and morphine

If you build a dependence, your body stops making its own.

Stimulants:

• Stay awake
• etc.

Caffeine ranks as an #1 in the stimulant category. Withdraw includes headaches.

Meth:

Stopping using meth, you get strong withdrawl symptoms.

Nicotine:

Kills a lot of people per year – a holocaust worth of people at its peak.

More addictive than heroin or cocaine.

Cocaine:

“Quick high”

• The euphoria lasts about 15 minutes
• By 20 minutes, the user becomes agitated.

It blocks the reuptake of dopamine so it stays in the synapse.

Ecstasy:

Hallucinogens:

LSD:

Distorts perceptions and evokes sensory images in the absence of sensory input.

Marijuana:

People often don’t get high on the first hit.

# The Mind

What is the mind?

What is consciousness?

• It’s not fixed – you can become unconscious

The most important question in psychology and biology is why?

We have two minds:

• the one we are aware on, and
• the one we are not

Our conciousness does not make decisions. Our ideas are merely rationalized post hoc.

D.F. Lost her concious sight, but could still see – she moved out of the way of objects.

# Nature vs. Nurture

The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost

• What does the data say about the choices we make?

## Are Our Genes Our Fate?

People are mostly the same across the world

• We are very similar genetically

20,000 coding genes in our DNA

Most of our DNA is dark.

But to what extent to these differences change who we are?

A single nucleotide (A, C, T, or G) can be lost, added, or replaced which is called mutation.

We haven’t identified most of what individuals genes do.

The function of genes can change.

Epigenetic phenomena can alter which genes are or are not expressed.

We can’t experiment differing genes on humans so we study twins and adoption.

We study identical twins who grow up in different environments. And fraternal twins in the same household. We then can get all four of the possibilities to study nature vs. nurture.

We don’t have random grouping in these studies! Identical twins most of the time don’t have exactly the same genes.

Identical twins are, however, very alike. Are our genes our fate? Yes – well sort-of.

Siblings are only slightly more alike than two kids from the same neighborhood.

Adopted children have more personality traits from their biological parents then their adopted parents.

If this is true, what traits are most heritable?

• Temperament
• Children who are shy will likely be introverted as teens
• Emotionally intense preschoolers are most emotionally intense at college students
• Both environment and genes play a role

What aren’t environment:

• Personality is both nature and nurture.

Nurture acts on what nature endows. “Nature via nurture”.

What things are nurture:

• Value systems
• Political and religious attitudes
• Social interactions
• Personal manners
• How charitable you are
• Education
• Nurture can control the quality of school you attend
• However, its the genes that control the quantity

<5% of all differences among humans arise from population group differences.

95% of genetic variation exists within populations.

Because we are similar genes, we therefore have similar personalities. These have been evolutionary conserved. We haven’t changed all that much from the first humans. Modern humans are the same:

• Fear of snakes and heights
• We share a universal moral code
• Less likely to murder our biological children

## Gender and Sex Differences

For women, passing on their genes is a literal “labor of love”.

• Women have small number of children but focus on quality

Men have this option, but also have the option to have a lot of children and don’t have to care about them.

These lead to fundamental differences in the thought of sex between men and women.

Women prefer potential “dads”.

Men prefer peak fertility (around the age of 20).

Men want sex more than women; is this biology or social norms?

• Both

Men tend to be more

• Dominant
• Directive

Women tend to be more

• More pluralist
• Supportive

These differences start in the playground

• Boys play in large groups with a goal
• Girls play in a small groups and tend to imitate adult social relationships

Men enjoy working on tasks together

Women tend to enjoy exploring relationships and use conversation to do this

Women do most of the housework, shopping, childcare

Women are the emotional strength in the family

There are differences in the brain, too.

• The part of the brain that handles verbal fluency are thinker in women
• The part of the cortex involved in spacial perception is thinker in men

Males have two X chromosome (one from mother and father).

Females have an X chromosome from their mother and a Y chromosome from their father.

The brains of both genders differ in utero.

## Parenting and Personality

The principle of the brain: “use it or lose it”.

Parents control what their kids, in large part, do with their daily lives.

Enriched environments makes rats more adventurous and vice versa.

Parents do matter. By reinforcing positive and negative behaviors, they can exploit the brain’s plasticity to “widen” some paths and “narrow” some others.

• The effects of parents are only important at the margins.

Your peer group determine your personality more than your parents.

• Accents most resemble your peers, not your parents.

Parents, however, determine your value system.

Things that aren’t in the parents’ control:

• Level of education attained,
• Earning power,
• Intelligence,
• etc.

Bad parenting has been blamed for a lot of mental diseases, however, this isn’t true.

Culture obviously impacts parenting

Parents in individualist cultures teach:

• Be yourself

Parents in collectivist cultures teach:

• Respect your elders

## Culture and Personality

Language has helped us our preform other animals.

A feature of culture is how rapidly they are able to change.

Cultures differ in how they value the individual vs how they value the group.

The United States is primarily individualist.

• We are culturally free

We value:

• Freedom
• Independence, and
• Individuality
• Privacy

Cons:

• Greater reports of loneliness
• More divorce
• More stress
• More suicide

Asian and African countries are primarily collectivists.

Members of these cultures tend to:

• Lost their feeling of self when cut off from a specific culture
• Get value from their groups
• Fitting in is really important

# Development

Exam Review: What is my definition of a neuron?

• Synapses

Split brain patient is shown a dog on the left and a boy on the right.

What will they say?

• Boy

What will they point to?

• Dog with left hand

### NUpath Assignment II

The advent of social media and the rise of women as economic and political forces have led to increased scrutiny of power dynamics in professional, interpersonal relationships.

Relationships between employees and students is not forbidden unless there is a power dynamic.

Do you agree with this policy? (150 words)

• Use a human cognitive development argument

## Parental Development

What is a fertilized egg called?

zygote

Gestation begins about 10 days after conception and lasts for ~37 weeks.

• We typically call term 40 weeks

Where does the placenta from from?

Zygote

Alcohol and pregnancy

• Can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome
• Symptoms are male proportioned head
• The fetus can like the smell of alcohol

What do new-borns know?

• They aren’t truly blank slates
• We know how to suck
• They prefer voices over other noises
• Stare at faces

Right after birth

• Learn mother’s smell

First few months of life

• Learn a whole array of things
• The association areas of cortex develop
• New nerve fibers between regions supporting language and agility begin to proliferate (lasting into puberty)
• At puberty, we engage in a pruning process

Babies go through the same developmental stages of motor development

• Rolling over
• Keeping themselves sitting
• Sitting up by themselves
• Crawling
• Walking

First memories appear at about 3.5

In contrast, memories from age 4+ can be sharp and vivid.

Tied a string to a mobile and it took the baby 10 minutes to learn that kicking makes it move. And they keep that knowledge.

Some part of you still remembers people that you don’t consciously remember

Jean Piaget is the most famous child developmental psychologist.

• Certain number of stages (hard and fast).

He proposed that during development our brain builds mental frameworks (schemas) into which we place objects and ideas as we encounter them.

• Example: schema of dog gets refined as you grow

Accommodation - not all furry things are dogs

Assimilation - dogs range from big to small

We can’t ask babies question so we use:

Preferential looking

• babies will look towards novel things that interest them
• babies will look longer at novel things that interest them

Object permanence

• Objects exist even when they aren’t obverses
• Starts to form in about 3 months

Principles of Objects

• Objects can’t pass through other object
• They don’t change directions
• they don’t fall up Won’t surprise less than 3 month olds (but will an adult).

To a pre operational Mind:

• The glass that’s taller always has more liquid in it
• 7 year old passes the test
• A couple years younger fail the test

Three-year-olds can look at a diagram of a room and see where a toy is and find it in a real room

2.5-year-old cannot find it in the real room

Preoperational minds cannot comprehend the existence of other minds.

• Egocentric

Theory of mind - understanding that other people have different minds

Autism

• We consider it a
• Heritable
• if a identical twin has it, 70% chance that the other does too

High IQ highly functional persons with Autism are said to have a special syndrome, called Asperger.

• Some don’t get diagnoses until adulthood

Usually diagnosed during the preoperational stage when they fail to:

• Make normal progression with language
• Engage social
• Show an active imagination

Concrete Operational Stage

• At around 6-7, Piaget said that children could comprehend conversation
• Understanding basic laws of physics and reasoning

Formal Operational

• At puberty (~12) our reasoning becomes more abstract

These stages are fuzzy and are more continuous

Children are not just little grown ups. They don’t have the mental capacity to intentionally upset you.

Language is critical to progression through these stages.

• Allows us to generate schemas

Eight months is when infants cry when held by strangers

• Development of anxiety towards strangers

Physical contact with humans is important and without, we develop life-long attachment issues

Dr. Mary Ainu worth - strange situation experiments

• Babies with secure attachment
• Play and explore new environments
• Babies with insecure attachment
• Showed fear

Is it the parenting style the difference or the child?

100 six-to-nine-month-old difficult were randomly assigned to either

• Sensitive responding trailing
• or nothing

At 1 year

• 68% of infants in the former displayed behavior showed secure attachment

What’s important, the milk or the contact?

• Secure attachment is a product of contact rather than nursing

Securely attached children

• More trust in their adulthood
• Happier parents in the future

The reverse is also true

• More aggressive
• Fearful
• Having difficulty forming relationships

If you are neglected as a child, you have a higher likelihood of neglecting their old children.

### Parenting

Divided into styles into three group

• Authoritarian
• Strict rules are imposed and unquestioned obedience demand
• Permissive
• Few demands are made or punishments enforced
• Authoritative
• Demanding, but responsive
• That is, while rules are imposed, questioning is encouraged discussion is possible (or just neglectful)

Which is the best? For adolescence, probably authoritative.o

The frontal lobe is one of the last part of the brain that reaches maturity.

The limbic system is fully developed in adolescence

• Impulsive
• Emotional
• Reckless
• Wracked with hormones

They aren’t stupid. They just lack the planning and foresight that comes with a fully developed frontal lobe.

NUpath Assignment II due Thursday

Kohlberg’s latter of moral development?

• <9: Preconvential morality (avoiding punishment)
• 9-Adolescence: conventional morality (based on social norms)
• Adolescence+: Post conventional modality (social norms may be wrong)

(Don’t seem to be consistent with more collectivist cultures)

Engagement of adolescents with empathy activity is very important

• Better self-image

In collectivist societies, they have a better self-image and know what they want to do “when they grow up”.

Positive parent relationships indicate friend relationships which is really important.

• Friend relationships change in adolescence

Birth Order

• First
• Parents are more engaged and focused
• Second
• More relaxed, doesn’t worry as much
• Don’t get either end of the attention
• Third (rest)
• More free-range
• First born
• Reliable
• Achievers
• Middle
• Rebellious
• Peacemakers
• Lots of friends
• Last
• Fun-loving free spirit’s
• Charming
• Manipulative
• Attention-seeking

One of the strongest predictors on who you are going to be

1950: Average age of marriage (20 for guys, 22 for girls)

2020: Average age of marriage (about 25 for both)

Probably why birth rates are so low right now

Categorizing adults is difficult and the stages aren’t that clear.

• The general trend is that you decline

Sensory acuity drops with aging

• It’s because of sense organs

Older people don’t get sick as often

The brain slows down

• Decreased melanin

The frontal lobe declines faster than old brain areas

• Why grandparents will say politically-incorrect thing

The best thing you can do for your brain health is help your physical health

Young people are adept at memorizing novel details

• After about 40, people notice that their memory is fading

Older people can do better with context

The cognitive abilities are predicted by how far away you are from dying rather than how old you are.

The stereotypical mid-life crisis does not exist

• The stakes just get higher (losing jobs, etc).

We derive satisfaction from “love” and “work”

Opposites so not attract

Education and age-at-marriage are negatively correlated with divorce (in temporal cross-sections).

Yet, divorce rates are rising

• This is mostly because of women’s independence in the workforce

Cohabiting with a partner before marriage is a predictor of divorce

Parents with children in the house report less-satisfying marriage than those without.

• This can be mitigated when childcare is done by both parties

Empty-nest syndrome does not happen, rather “post-launch honeymoon”

Most people die happy

• Negative memories fade

An unexpected death may lead to chronic depression

• Whereas an older person dying isn’t as bad

After the death of a loved one:

• Frag peaks about four months after loss
• Anger peaks about five months after the loss
• Those express grief immediately do not get over it any faster
• Bereavement therapy does not seem to decrease the amount of time that graving occurs

Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development (and their virtues)

Infancy - hope

Toddlerhood - will

Preschool - purpose

Elementary school - competence

Young adults - love

Middle adulthood - care

Late adulthood - wisdom

# Sensory Systems

Our eyes follows the same principles as cameras and ears and microphones

Sensation $\neq$ Perception

• Sensation is the translation of a stimulus into a neural signal
• Perception is the recognition of a stimulus
• A stimulus is not strictly necessary (hallucination)

Two critical concepts in the study of S&P are absolute and increment thresholds

• Absolute thresholds are sometimes called the just-detectable threshold
• Increment thresholds are sometimes called the just-detectable (or noticeable) difference

The branch of psychology that handles this is psychophysics

• They study thresholds

The gold standard is to detects it correctly 75% of the time

• It goes from 50% to 100%

(The book says 0% to 100%)

Once you get passed absolute threshold, it becomes linear (with respect to background light).

• The threshold is vastly different in the real world

Subliminal Message

• Falls below the absolute threshold
• There may be a priming effect

But there are things that our brain processed that we aren’t aware of

We are great at differences, but really bad at absolute values.

How different do you think that light is in this classroom vs the light outside on a bright day?

• At least a million time brighter

Vision has to be 8% brighter to notice

Weight, 2% Tone, 0.6%

### Vision

By definition, we see light

The cones (color detectors) are packed in the center of the eye. There are a lot more rods (light) and they are mostly in the sides.

Our brains are great at object recognition. We don’t work like a camera because our brain handles it more.

Specialized areas:

• Gaze and head angle
• Direction of someone approach
• Objects
• Animals

We handle:

• Color
• Motion
• Depth

Color does make that much of a difference

All vertebrate animals have color vision. So it must be important.

• Seeing an apple tree (and ripeness)

We are trichromatic (Red, green, and blue).

• Some animals have more or fewer than three color detectors

An object’s color is actually what colors it reflects back

They are not independent value receptors. It’s the ratio between red vs green and yellow vs blue.

### Audition

Many of the same rules as vision

However, hearing has an interesting problem to tackle:

• Directionality

Vision is in one direction, whereas sound is everywhere.

Sound is a wave

• We measure the intensity by decibels (in a log scale)
• We measure the frequency by Hz (the higher the frequency–shorter the wave–the higher the pitch)
• 4 Hz is a 1/4 second between waves

## Sensory Systems II

NUpath Assignment III

Historical and cultural contingency

• There are external factors which influence people (environment)

Different places have different cultural norms

• Ex. McDonald’s employee of the month in India backfired

Major cultural topics:

• Sexual assault
• Bullying
• Gender equality
• Education

Uniforms are used to address these problems

What cultural value is contingent upon school dress?

The assignment:

• What cultural norm you are addressing,
• Where you think that norm came from, and
• How you think a school uniform would impact that norm.

Examples:

• Should poor kids stand out because they don’t have the right clothes
• Tyranny of choice
• What about freedom of expression?
• Is banning yoga pants sexist?

Due Thursday, the 25th

• Reviewed by peers

### Audition

The outer ear catches the waves

Which travel through the ear cancel and reach the eardrum which vibrate the three bones which increase the sound to the

Cochlea which looks like a snail where the fluids are moved which moves hair bundles move via the waves in the cochlea

Ions rush from the top of the hair cells

Which sends neurotransmitters to the auditory nerves

So neither position nor firing rate can signal volume. What does then?

• How many of the hair bundles move (it jiggles it’s neighbor hair bundles)

Loud noise are ripping the membrane (which is very measurable)

Nearly all hearing loss is structural, as opposed to neural atrophy

Auditory localization

• We can tell when a noise is above/below us and in front/behind us
• Right and left makes sense (because right and left ears)
• Handled by the pinna (the structure on the outside of the head)
• the pinna works as an echo chamber and therefore we can isolate sound

### Tactician

Sense of touch

• Actually a mix of senses with specialized nerve ending within the skin

• Meissner’s corpuscles
• Pacinian corpuscles
• Merkels discs
• Free nerve endings
• Ruffini’s end organs
• Hair follicles changes of the hair
• etc.

Touch is highly susceptible to top-down influences

• Rubber hand illusion

While not strictly part of touch, nearly identical nerve ending are founds in joints, tendons, and bones

Kinesthesis (or Proprioception): the sense of how your body is moving and where your body parts are

### Balance

Very important sense is the vestibular sense

• Biological ‘gyroscopes’ in the semicircular canals which provide information about your head’s
• Tilt and
• Acceleration

When we move, the otoliths move which activate hair cells

### Pain

The most studied subject in science is pain

Those who don’t experience pain typically die in their 20s

Chronic pain is a serious problem

• When pain continues to b signaled to the brain when there isn’t a reason for it

The sensation of pain is conducted in the spine, to the brain, by so-called small fibers

Pain is conducted via two classes of neurons dubbed

• A$\delta$ fibers, which control the first sharp pain
• C fibers which control the lasting pain afterwards

Gate-control theory tries to explain why actions such as rubbing an injury make it feel better.

• It might block the pain

Highly subject to top-down processing

Very common in the phantom limbs of amputees

• Could be like the rubber hand illusion

We remember pain’s severity more than the duration

We also remember the last part of the pain as the whole thing

Pain is also social-cultrual influences just like yawing is contagious so is pain

Thus, pain is both a biological an psychological phenomenon

What is hypnosis?

• A state of heightened suggestibility

Hypnosis typically begins with hypnotic induction

• Usually gets the subject to relax

After induction, the hypnotists may be able to make the subject unaware of an object in plain sight

• But they will still move around objects

There is a Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale includes several test

• The first item on the scale is “postural sway”
• If the subject moves from side to side when asked to imagine being a ship, they are a good subject

It is an active thing, not a passive thing

• People are trusting

Authority figures in the right context can get people to do crazy things (it’s not the hypnosis)

Weight loss and pain management can be helped from hypnosis

Addictions do not seem to respond

Hypno-osurgey: one can go under surgery only being hypnotised

Theories:

Social Influence Theory

We may just be “playing the part”

• Peer pressure

Cognitive Dissociation Theory

We have a divided consciousness so can we move the line of conciousness?

• People who were hypnotised still feel pain but it doesn’t ‘hurt’ them

Pain Management

• Drugs
• Surgery
• Acupuncture
• Massage
• Hypnosis
• etc.

Placebo

The more elaborate the placebo, the better the results

Simple distraction can even be enough

### Gustation (Taste)

The four tastes:

• Sweet
• Sour
• Salty
• Bitter

And we recently discovered:

• Savory

Taste receptors are chemoreceptors

Taste is handled (mostly) by the tongue

People taste differently

• People who report coffee as being bitter and green vegetables are “tasters” and those who don’t are “non-tasters”

Others are “super tasters”

• Usually children

The more taste buds, the more of a “taster” you are and the more you are sensitive

Lots of things that you eat (hot, spicy, etc) are toxic to taste buds

Taste and smell work together

• When you have a cold, things don’t taste as good

Texture also plays a role in taste

### Olfaction (Smell)

The oldest sense

5% of the genome is responsible for smell

The one sense that doesn’t pass through the thalamus

Most of us don’t use our sense of smell so we ‘lose it’

• Some people can detect where a grape was grown by smell

We have 350 distinct oderants (compared to our 3 for sight)

The olfactory bulb is old brain and cortex

There is something called “smell memory” which seems to be very strong and deep

• Subtle fragrances can be associated with subtle events

### Perception

• An hallucination is a perception without an appropriate sensation
• Anesthesia is sensation without perception

There are also auditory illusions

Perceptual Organization

Meaningful object recognition

• Figure and ground
• Grouping
• Depth perception
• Shape and size constancy
• lightness and color constancy

You can only be attending to one thing at a time

Grouping

• Proximity
• Continuity
• Similarity
• Connectedness
• Closure

Knowing the answer doesn’t help

### Depth

3d impression of the world

Asked a baby to crawl across a glass floor, and they wouldn’t. They know that there is depth

Stereopsis: The detection of the disparity between images on our retinae due to the fact that we have slightly different images between our eyes.

• More disparity means that an object is closer
• Only works for the first 25 feet or so

After 25 feet, we reply on monocular cues

• Works with just one eye

Things that are higher in our field we perceive as farther away.

Relative Size

We know just about how big something is so we can figure out how far away it is from that.

Interposition

If something blocks another object, that first object is closer

Linear Perspective

We know that parallel close to a vanishing point at a distance.

Relative Motion

Things that are moving at a fixed speed will seem to move quicker closer to you

(Ex driving a car, the mountains won’t seem to move while the trees close to you will be moving quickly)

### Perception Principals

Shape constancy. Objects stay the same shape, so we can understand that when a door opens, it doesn’t change shape.

Lightness and color constancy use context to interpret changes to patterns to provide meaning.

There’s a lot of processing that goes into perception before it reaches your conciousness.

There seem to be “critical periods” for developing some of these sensory skills.

Those who fix their cataracts after childhood don’t restore their vision (but their sight is still restored)

The Perceptual Set: The state of your top-down processors that impact what you perceive

• Important!!

Human factors psychologists work at the “man-machine interface”

• Exploiting or altering perceptual sets to maximize:
• Usability
• Safety
• Comfort
• Etc

In order for ESP to be proven, it only has to be proven once.

# Learning and Memory

You don’t need to know what a penny looks like, you just need to know how to tell it apart from other coins.

• All animals learn
• But we don’t just acquire memories of experiences, we acquire knowledge
• Product of culture and language
• Although we do a lot of conditioning learning

• Conditioning forms the basis of the behaviorism schools of psychology
• Recall that behaviorism doesn’t look at cognitive mental processes rather only results

### Types of Learning

• Classical Conditional
• Stimuli triggers a biological response
• Operant conditioning
• behavior is associated with consequences
• Observational
• behavior is learned through viewing others
• Instructional
• Being taught

There is no formal distinction between learning and memory

Memory: learning that persists over time

### Classical Conditioning

Means the same thing as Pavlovian conditioning

Associated a ticking metronome with food appearing. Then the dogs learned that the ticking meant the arrival of meat

• The unconditioned response (UR)
• Example saliva
• The neural stimulus (NS)
• Stimulus that is unrelated
• Metronome
• The unconditioned stimulus (US)
• Food
• The conditioned stimulus (CS)
• Metronome
• Conditioned response (CR)
• Saliva

TIP: the UR and the CR are always the same thing. And the NS and CS are always the same thing

So what are the rules to this? What combinations will work and what won’t work?

• Yes; you need to have the metronome before the food.
• You can also have a second-order conditioning
• You can also weaken the association (extinction)
• After extinction and after time, they will regain the association (called spontaneous recovery)
• They don’t have to be perfect stimuli match (ex. Light being in a different place, or different pitch tuning fork)
• Dogs will, however, learn to discriminate if one doesn’t produce food

John Watson and his “Little Albert” experiment

• Tried this with humans. Showed a cute animal and than scared the child to see if they would associate the cute animal with the loud noise.

Key features

• Acquisition
• Pairing of NS and US leads to CS and CR
• Extinction
• Pairings are not necessarily forever
• Generalization
• Stimuli sufficiently similar to the CS will trigger the CR
• Discrimination
• Stimuli sufficiently different from the CS won’t trigger the CR

A second-level predictor that doesn’t always work will never be used if there is a predictor that works all the time

• It will, however, work if there isn’t a 100% predictor

Your mind has to figure out what is the CS is. Not all NS can become CS. There is always cognition.

An environment or person can also be a CS.

You can even control your immune system with this

• Training your body that a smell is associated with steroids can help ween off of steroids

### Operant Conditioning

Popularized by B.F. Skinner

Animals can learn that their behaviors have consequences

Edward Thorndike’s law of effect: Rewarded behavior is likely to recur

Rewards are called reinforcers

Generalization and discrimination

The most ubiquitous reinforcer in modern life: money.

The schedule of reinforcement has a profound effect on behavior

• If you don’t know when your manager is going to check on you, you will work harder

Basic rules of reinforcement can be either

• Fixed or variable
• Interval or ratio

Examples

• What schedule of reinforcement does a salaried worker get?
• Fixed interval

• What schedule of reinforcement does a telemarketer get, assuming they get a commission per sale?
• Variable ratio

• What schedule of reinforcement does your Twitter feed offer?
• Variable interval

• What schedule of reinforcement does a “coffee club” offer?
• Fixed ratio

Peer Reviewing is due Monday

You must complete the rubric

• Clearly written
• Make a point

## Punishment

Things that decrease the likelihood of a behavior recurring are punishment

Negative reinforcer: Stopping something bad (ex car alarm for seatbelts)

Positive punishment: doing something bad to you (ex spanking)

Negative punishment: taking something good away (ex grounding)

Drawbacks for punishment:

• Will suppress a behavior, but does not “unlearn it”
• The organism just learns to do not to the thing with the punisher around
• May cause fear of resentment
• Effects relationships

However, when you combine punishment and reward, it works.

B. F. Skinner

• All oand f our behavior is based on reinforcement
• Our free will and conciousness doesn’t change anything

Cognitive Science refute to B. F. Skinner

• Rats thinks about the best path in a maze without having tried that option before

We require cognitive science to explain this.

Sometimes rewards can actually decrease responding

• If we have doubly reinforcement, we think something is suspicious

If someone is intrinsic motivated, reward will actually decrease their likelihood of doing the thing.

Animals come biologically predisposed to pairing certain reinforcers with certain actions

• It’s easy to teach a pigeon to peck for food, but not to flap its wings for food

In sports, several techniques are applied to enhance competence

• People start baseball with a T and a light toss and then builds up

In the workplace, merit pay is commonplace

Ranking people by their sales can motivate everyone

If a child whines and you give in and then yell at the child, it reinforces the child’s whining and your yelling.

### How to Implement Classical Conditioning

• State your goal (operational definition)
• Monitor how often you engage in your desired behavior
• Reinforce yourself only when you do well
• Once you are regularly doing well, titrate the rewards

## Observational Learning

This is learning by the modeling of the behaviors of others.

• People’s mirror neurons light up in the same way when someone does an activity and when they are watching another person do the same activity

Classic experiment by Albert Bandura in 1960

• Some children watched an adult “beat up” a doll, others didn’t
• What happens to those who watched the aggression vs those who did not
• Children became more aggressive (they would also do new ways of aggression)

MLK modeled nonviolent action as a force for social change

Prosocial modeling can be use therapeutically in

• Criminal justice
• Education
• Child welfare

In your own life

• Cover your mouth when you sneeze
• Be nice to the help
• Drive safely

Video games

• Do they train people to be violent?
• Violence caused by video games are an edge case and so we can throw out this hypothesis
• Catharsis
• Do video games act as an outlet? No not really. It doesn’t work with pornography also.

Current consensus is that violence does lead to aggressive behavior by children but how much is still up for debate.

• Does it desensitize people to violence?

Instructional Learning:

• Does not require trail and error, nor conditioning, nor observation

## Memory

Memory is learning that has persisted over time

How much does active recall shape who we are?

What would happen if you lost your memory?

• Encoding
• Storage
• Retrieval

Thee memory “banks”

• Sensory Memory
• Short-term memory
• Long-term memory

Working memory

Some memories don’t pass through the conciousness and go right to long term memory

When memorizing information, your brain may be recording all kinds of superfluous information automatically. For instance

• Space
• We may remember where a diagram is in a book
• Time
• We rememberer sequence well
• Frequency
• “Wow, I just heard the word pinochle today”
• Well-learned material

Well rehearsed material can become effortless

• It is difficult or impossible to turn off

The simplest strategy for memorization is rehearsal

Ebbinghause found that more rehearsing something difficult on day one means less time to relearn it on day two

• He was using nonsense syllables

Spacing is important to learning

• The longer the spacing, the better the storage

Serial position effects are quite interesting because they consist both of

• A recency effect in the near-term (you remember the last short term)
• A primacy effect in the longer term (you remember the first long term)

Putting things in context is very important

Mnemonic system: the “pegword” system

• First, memorize a list of words

Chunking

If the information can be place into familiar chunks, it will be easier to memorize

Hierarchies

Putting things into bins is helpful

Short term memory is surprisingly limited

• The total number of items is 7$\pm$2
• 3-4 seconds of auditory memory

We have no evidence that new information displaces (or removes) other information.

• We don’t have any knowledge of any maximum

Long-term memory is governed by

• Storage
• Retrieval

Long-term potentiation (LTP): increase in the strength of synapses as they are used

• Fundamental thing that governs long-term memory

There are drugs that reduce the LTP process and there are also drugs that are soon to be out that enhance LTP

Sleep also increases the LTP process

The amygdala and other components of the limbic system affect memory formation in an intensity graded fashion.

There is a drug called propranolol that lowers the stress response in the amygdala and thus mitigates formation of memoires of stressful events.

• Applies after a trauma, it can reduce the appearance of stress disorders
• It doesn’t remove the memories, but it removes the emotional attachment

Memories of emotionally charged events that are crystallized are referred to a flashbulb memories

• Remember this when we are talking about PTSD

Explicit: food reward Implicit: just explores the maze

Explicit memory is of of those facts and experiences that one can declare (“This is Beethoven’s 5th”)

Implicit memory is retention outside of the conciousness (“I know I’ve heard this tune before”)

You don’t know how to ride a bike. You can, but you don’t know exactly.

The most famous research subject in psychology’s history is H.M. (Henry Molaison)

• Can never have new explicit memories
• He could still learn things but doesn’t consciously know that he knows things

## Learning and Memory II

Recall that H.M. can’t remember anything consciously but can still remember.

• Him and Clyde lost their explicit memories, but kept their implicit ones

• Inability to recall past memories

• Inability to create new memoires

Hippocampus is active during sleep

• Left region - language
• Right region - spatial memory

Cerebellum is responsible for implicit memories Hippocampus is responsible for explicit memories

Infantile amnesia

• Can’t remember anything when we are really young

Alzheimer’s

• Loose explicit memories
• Can lay down new implicit memories

## Retrieval

We need to show that we can retrieve information and memories

Retrieval cues

• Remember that our information is just a web
• The more cues, the better the retrieval

Priming

• Context matters
• Be in the same place, you can recall better the stuff that you learned there (same with different states of mind)

Deja Vu

• False recognition

Mood also taints the retrieval of previous memories

## Forgetting/Memory Failure

• Fails to encode things

### Storage Decay

Ebbinghous’ “forgetting curve”

• You lose a lot quickly but then it levels off

In retrieval failure, you haven’t forgotten

• You just need more cues

Interference

• proactive - previous knowledge slows the learning of new material
• retroactive - current knowledge ‘kicks’ out old knowledge (overriding)

“Sleeping on it” works

• Limited interference

Freud said that we repress bad memories

• This is false; we obsess over them

Sensory memory/working memory

• Lasts only a few seconds
• What is currently active
• Parts
• Phonological loop
• Episodic Buffer
• Visuospatial Sketch Pad

Consolidation

• Sorted into important information and encodes into memory accordingly

Reconsolidation

• Recalling the memory (and distorts the memory)
• Re encoded (depending on context)

Flashbulb Memory

• Memories that we vivid (however, the accuracy often fades)

The frailest part of a memory is the source.

Children can create memories so vivid that they and researchers can’t tell true from false

• We can fool ourselves
• “I never really loved my ex”

When asked about our views 10 years ago, we often say things that are closer to present day’s views.

Loftus’ work shows that ‘recovering’ memories is dangerous.

• Memories are fragile

Use neutral language to to try to recover information.

# Cognition

Thinking

• Learning
• Remembering
• etc.

We place things into bins (or concepts)

Prototype - the exemplar for a given type

Thinking

• Sometimes it’s trail and error
• But we often use heuristics (intuition when not concious of it)
• Afterwards, we use algorithms.

This is why we think things are funny

• Things we aren’t excepting

By studying how thinking fails, we can understand how it works

• Confirmation Bias
• Fixation
• Hard to reorganize our thoughts on a problem
• “Think outside the box”, but the box works
• Duncker’s candle problem
• Functionally fixated

Some heuristics

• Representativeness
• The closest to our prototype
• “slim, poetry fan”, truck driver or Ivy League professor?
• Availability
• How emotionally charged our thoughts are
• “Terrorists are Muslim”
• Overconfidence
• We overestimate ourselves
• 90% of people say that they have above average IQ’s
• Belief perseverance
• Willingness to cling to data and beliefs in the face of contrary evidence (even overwhelming)

Availability and belief perseverance is what causes “-isms” (racism, sexism, etc.)

A good way to overcome this:

• “If this piece of data had been opposite, would you still not consider it reliable?”

### Intuition

These issues all impact our intuition (which is why it’s hard to overcome this).

For example, chess masters can make their best move within a few seconds (without actually thinking through every move).

“sleeping on it” really does work.

Although intuition doesn’t work all the time, it does more good than harm.

Framing:

• The manipulation of the truth and it impacts our decisions and our judgment (it’s not lying)
• Examples:
• “I’m pro-life”
• “I’m against the death tax”
• “50% off regular price!”
• Organ donors being opt-out vs opt-in
• Fear tactics:
• Terrorist attacks kill less people than falling down the stairs do

Fear is one of the best ways for someone to manipulate you.

## Language

• “People are not animals”
• People often cite language

Language: a mechanism by which we can transfer meaning, learning and ideas from one mind to another.

The basic building block of the spoken word is the phoneme.

There are 869 phonemes in use throughout all the languages of the world

• There are about 40 in the English language

Sign languages also have phonemes

We carry an accent if we learn another language as adults

Morpheme: the smallest unit of meaning (any one syllable thing that has meaning)

• -ed
• -er, or
• Un-

Or like

• I,
• Dog,
• Bat

We build morphemes and words into phrases and phrases into sentences, etc.

Grammar: the rules that govern our language

• Semantics
• The individuals interpretation of language’s meaning based on prior knowledge of signifiers
• Syntax
• The combinatorial rules that dictate correct sentence construction

Consider: “Getting yourself to the gym often is a challenge.”

• This can either mean that getting to the gym once is a challenge, but to frequent the gym is hard

Babies go through an explosive language development process

Month Stage
4 Babbling, variety of sounds
10 Babbling, household language
12 One-word stage.
24 Two-word telegraphic speech
24+ Rapid development, complex sentences

Even when babies say just two words, they are syntactically correct: they say “want milk” and not “milk want”.

Noam Chomsky said that it doesn’t have to be reinforced for the child to say things.

We have a language acquisition device built in and therefore we see a lot of similarities across languages.

• Babies across cultures follow the same stages
• Children know what syntax is correct without reinforcement

Recall that if one eye is occluded or misaligned in childhood, you can’t fully develop it in adulthood. Same with language.

Occasionally, cases of neglect or abuse can leave children with underdeveloped (or, in extreme cases no) language at all.

Deaf children can’t develop language. Deaf children who were born into non-signing families and latter learned sign, don’t remember their time without language.

If we have a name for a color, it actually makes it easier to remember it and pick it out of a pallet again.

Could it be that personality is a result of language?

• The Whorfian hypothesis

If you are an expert in something, just thinking about it can help you improve.

• Pianists can get better without actually practicing

If you visualize the journey and not the destination.

• Visualize what you need to do to get the outcome that you want

Is language the thing that separates us from other animals?

Other animals can think

Chimps even seem to have culture.

• One group might use one kind of tool to complete a task, another might use a different tool

Nonhuman primates have

• Symbol recognition
• A bit of grammar
• Concept of narrative

Skeptics counter that

• Every new word is a labor for primates
• Much of what they do can be explained by operant conditioning
• The scientists who train these monkeys have a vested interest in seeing them succeed. Do they have a bias?
• Chimps have a very hard time with grammar, making little distinction between “you tickle” and “tickle you”
• Some novelties (ie “water bird) could just be two different ideas

Chimps often pass on sign language to their children.

Thomas Sebeok, linguist

• Three groups of chimp language projects
• Fraud
• Self-deception (the largest group)
• those conducted by Terrace

Birds, however, can speak language and ‘communicate’ through it.

• They, however, still don’t have real human language

If animals are shown to have rich cognitive lives, there would be ethical questions.

# Intelligence

One of the most controversial parts of psychology.

What is intelligence?

• The ability to solve mental problems.
• We generally associate intelligence with IQ.
• We don’t use IQ anymore, however

Spearman is a intelligence researcher who stated that if you are good at one type of problem, you are probably also good at another type of problem (called this g).

• There is one intelligence

Thurstone said that it is possible to have separable intelligences.

g is measured by every task on a standard intelligence inventory (test).

Savants: people who excel in one aspect but have a low g.

Midterm 2

What does the constant movement of our eyes do?

How many phonemes and morphemes are in the word “rethinks”?

• 7; 3

The claim that hypnotic phenomena are regulated by normal conscious processes is associated with the theory that hypnosis reflects the power of what?

• Social influence/pressure

Who were the group of psychologists who first identified principals for organized stimuli into coherent groups and which of their principals makes you see a lightbulb?

• Gestaltists - Closure

What were the “psychic secretions” that lead to Pavlov’s experiments on associative learning, and what did he eventually come to call them?

• Dogs are drooling before the food arrives; Conditioned responses

If people quit the stock market after taking big losses in the 2008 crash, and then missed out on all the gains since then, what principal would that be illustrating?

• Punishment (important)

What do Chomsky and other linguists argue we must come endowed with in order to acquire language?

• Language acquisition device (grammar)

Gardner famously argued for multiple intelligences identifying a total of 7(+1), and advocating for customized education for each.

• Do all these things really all look like “intelligence” to you?
• Bodily-kinesthetic?
• Spatial (like artist)

Gardner said that we can’t be good at all of these different things (only so much brain)

• But there are people who are great at everything
• g really does seem to matter

Th correlation between IQ and financial success is about 0.3 (so less than 10% correlation).

Now intelligence is seen to have three major subcategories:

• Analytical
• Closest to IQ
• Creative
• Deal with new situations
• Practical
• Great haggler or salesman
• Best predictor of financial success

It does seem like some degree of high analytical intelligence is necessary for geniuses (like scientists) but that isn’t the case. They need creativity.

Fermat’s Last Theorem (1637); it was proven in 1995 (using a new idea in mathematics: the modularity conjecture).

Newton’s laws of Physics and Einsteins theory of relativity

Four axis’s of Intelligence:

• Expertise

• Imagination

• A venturesome personality

• Motivation

But there is another one (that is debatable):

• Emotional intelligence

The typical brain weighs about 3 lbs.

Do big brains make geniuses?

• There is a reasonable correlation between brain size and intelligence (r $\approx$ 0.33)
• Einstein had a disproportionally large ventral parietal lobe

Brain size is not as correlated as much as brain speed

• Brain speed and intelligence (r $\approx$ 0.5)

### IQ

IQ: What is the Q? Quotient.

In France, they said that all students should be educated and noticed that some people fell behind and others excelled. They wanted to figure it out.

They hire Alfred Binet to develop a test that compared “typical” skills in children at each grade year. He then divided an individual’s age with their mental age (at what age would this seem normal?). Examples: 8 year old performing as a 10 year old: 10/8 = 1.25

• But he saw an issue with this

Lewis Terman took Binet’s tests and modified them for not just school children. But this doesn’t work with adults. So now there isn’t any ratio and therefore no quotient.

IQ tests must meet three criteria to be worthwhile:

• They must be standardized
• Everyone’s tests must be relatable to a general population
• They must be reliable
• Gets the same results for the same person
• They must be valid
• The hardest one. Must actually report what it should report. We don’t agree what intelligence is

The most common tests are by David Wechsler

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Score (WAIS)

• See the breakdown of scores

There are different kinds of intelligence tests. For example, midterm exams.

IQ tests are designed to be qptitude tests.

IQ tests have an average of 100 and a standard deviation of 15.

SAT has an average of 1000 and a standard deviation of 150.

James “Flynn effect” notes that normalized IQs are rising! So what are we actually measuring?

Just because a test is reliable does not mean that it is valid. Validity for IQ tests can be difficult to assure. We need to see that these tests predict some achievement (academic, professional, etc.).

Good news:

• Modern IQ tests are very reliable

• They aren’t very valid
• The SATs do a better job at predicting college grades than the GREs do at predicting graduate school grades.
• This is because those who take the SAT are those who are likely to excel at them

We don’t have good tools to predict adult intelligence before age 4.

• Disability is apparent, however.

IQ at age 11 is a predictor of IQ 60 years later

Extreme Intelligence

• Children with very high IQs typically thrive socially as well

Overall, children with high IQs typically end up with professions with doctors, lawyers, etc.

How should we treat gifted minds and ungifted minds?

• If the gifted people are the one’s who push society forward, should we devote our resources to them? Taking them away from the ungifted?

How heritable is intelligence?

Lewis Terman was a racist and wanted to prove that some races are more intelligent (but the tests weren’t appropriate for other races).

Twins:

Identical twins who are raised together have near-identical IQs

Identical twins who are raised separately drop slightly

Correlation in between children and biological parents

Above 50% heritable. (Mostly genetic.)

NOTE: How heritable something is depends upon how strong the environment effect is.

Poverty is an environment factor that can push a lot of people to the margins.

Does Head Start (helping impoverished children) work?

• Yes. But as children age, the effect disappears

### Gender Differences

IQ is what the SAT tests. Boys and girls do almost exactly as well

• However, girls slightly outperform boys

Boys have a broader distribution of IQ than girls.

### Race Difference

In the US, white IQ is about 100 whereas other races have different averages.

There are no differences in brains between races.

• The differences in average are attributed to social factors and environmental factors

If you say that their ‘kind’ does really well on a test, their scores go up and vice versa.

The vast majority of scientists think that genetics play a small role in intelligence.

Is Binet’s fear being realized? That is, is our reliance on IQ testing discriminatory?

# Motivation

Where does motivation come from? Levels of analysis:

• Evolutionary psychology
• Drives and incentives
• Arousal
• Motivation hierarchies

Recall the different types of intelligence.

Darwin’s book makes us realize that instincts are endowed upon us (food, water, etc.).

Instinct:

• Fixed pattern throughout the species
• It must be unlearned

This should not discount the role of evolution, however.

Two ways to motivations:

• What the body needs
• What the mind wants

These needs and wants express themselves as drives. When a psychological need increases, a psychological motivation increases.

Homeostasis: our body wants to get back to baseline state

If you smell something good and then want to eat it, is this really homeostasis? You are pulled by the smell.

Our drives are both “pushed” by our needs and “pulled” by our instincts.

When all those basic needs are met, we often get “cabin fever” and feel the need to head out and explore.

We need stimulation

• There are reward centers in the brain that activate just for learning and experiencing something new.

Smartphones fill this need

• Distracting and fulfills our need

Chronic stimulation (like smartphones) can make you:

• Stressed
• Jittery
• According to new research, stupid

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:

There are some needs that are physical needs (foot, water, shelter, etc.) and then you go up the pyramid which is self-fulfillment and belonging.

Happiness increases when you give food and shelter to poor countries. That increase isn’t as apparent in rich countries.

### Hunger

When people are starving, they become “like animals” literally fighting over scrapes of food.

Other wants and needs drop when you lack food.

If you don’t consume food, food consumes you.

What is hunger?

• We are motivated to find food

The pancreas, which is a gland located right next to the stomach, secretes insulin.

Hypothalamus: responds to the key apatite hormones in the body

• Has multiple regions that monitor blood chemistry and regulate different hormones that controls hunger responses.

Grehlin is secreted by the empty stomach

The anti-grehlin is obestatin

These hormones are homeostatic. They work in concert to try to return the body to its baseline weight.

If you lose weight, your basal metabolic rate will drop, whereas if you gain weight, it will increase.

There seems to be a purely cognitive aspect to hunger as well.

Why do we stay the same weight?

There are two competing ideas:

• The “set point”
• The limbic system monitors our weight and works to maintain a specific weight
• The “settling point” (favored theory)
• Suggests that we have a fairly constant weight because we maintain a fairly constant caloric intake and energy expenditure

We don’t need to taught to like salty or sweet. All other tastes are apparently conditioned.

Eating novel foods makes us like them more, and also makes us more willing to try other novel foods in the future.

Eating is also a social phenomenon

• We eat with others. We eat more with others.

Eating also depends upon presentation

• Given a full quart of ice cream and
• A small bowl, you will probably fill the bowl and eat less than if given
• A large bowl which you will probably also fill (even though you could have just had two smaller bowls, you don’t)

Obesity is both a literally and figuratively growing problem

• Since hunger (a mental state) an eating (a behavior) are psychological phenomena, obesity can be thought of a psychological problem at its core

Eating disorders

• Anorexia nervosa
• Dieting past the point of health
• Bulimia nervosa
• Fluctuates between times of purging and dieting
• Binge-eating
• Bulimia without the purging

Overwhelmingly affect women, typically in the adolescent years or early 20s

Mothers of girls with eating disorders tend to focus on both their own and their daughters’ weight and appearance.

Families of anorexics tend to be high-achieving and competitive.

• Anorexia is a “disease of affluence”

Families of bulimics have higher-than-usual incidences of obesity and low self-esteem

Identical twins are somewhat more likely to share an eating disorder than fraternal twins, but surprising, eating disorders don’t seem to be all that heritable

In western cultures, where eating disorders are on the rise, a corresponding decrease in body image is found in women.

People who are alone and told to take a math test in a swim suit perform worse.

Once upon a time, when food was scarce, a little “heft” was a signal of social status

In 2016,

• 2.2 billion adults are overweight
• 100 million children under 18 are also “obese”
• 20 million of those are under age 5

Among the many health risks accompanying obesity is diabetes

• We are in for an epidemic of diabetes

Being “pear” shaped is better than being “apple” shape

Social Impacts

Gaining 30 lbs, people were rejected from jobs more frequently

• Women, more so

This also has a halo effect. It affects those who hang out with overweight people.

Why is it so hard to lose weight?

Every pound of fat contains about 3,500 calories.

• Therefore, to lose a pound of fat, you need to cut out 3,500 calories, right?
• In theory yes, but in reality, due to homeostatic mechanisms, no.

Unfortunately, fat cells don’t just multiply as you become obese, they also enlarge.

You wind up with more and now “starving” fat cells after you gain weight and then diet.

Two things are fight against you trying to lose weight:

• Body’s homeostatic mechanisms
• Second, your fat cells are sending signals to eat more

There is no diet that scientifically works. Weight Watchers (the best one) just stops you from gaining more weight. It does nothing.

Adopted children’s body weight is uncorrelated with their siblings’ or their (adoptive) parents

Identical twins are usually very close in weight.

The hight rates of obesity is fairly new

• It’s the environment, not our genetics

What causes obesity

• More television viewing
• Better, labor saving tools, including the automobile
• The Amish has 1/7th the rate than the rest of America
• Food consumption patterns have shifted dramatically
• Women and men now eat 300 and 200 more calories respectively

Global warming and obesity are the same problem

• If people bike instead of drive to work, it solves both

People do have a spike in body weight in college (change in environment)

The WHO has drafted an anti-obesity charter

• They ask that the private sector reduce advertising of sugary foods to children
• Commits government to
• Increasing access to health foods and
• Increasing walkways and bike ways

We can also put a tax (the “Twinkie Tax”) on junk food

Bloomberg banned supersized soda was ruled unconstitutional by a court in NY

• What do you think?
• We need better education

Asked if they would rather “be five years younger or weight 15 lbs less”

• 48% of women would chose 15 lbs
• about 25% of men would too

Once you reach a state of obesity, it is nearly impossible to get all the way back to a healthy weight and stay there.

Some tips to lose weight:

• Don’t start your diet until you are really ready to.
• Slow and steady weight loss – 1 to 2 pounds a week
• Diet must be low-calorie, so to stay stimulated, eat a wide range of healthy foods
• Try to avoid exposure to junk foods
• Don’t binge – but don’t get discouraged when you slip
• Be more physically active

What about those people who eat and eat but don’t seem to gain any weight?

• What makes them different?

## Sexual Motivation

Where should sex be in Maslow’s hierarchy?

The individual don’t need it, but the society does.

It can provide

• A feeling of being loved
• Self esteem and even
• Self satisfaction

If sex is fundamental to the survival of the species, then the process of natural selection will have made sure that our behaviors around it are very, very sophisticated.

• Evolution makes sure to get everything right

Alfred Kinsey’ founded “Kinsey’s Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction”

The actual act of sex remained very poorly understood until the middle of the 1960s (Masters and Johnson)

• Sexual acts were one of the first things to be drawn in caves.

Masters and Johnson managed to talk hundreds of people into performing sex acts in the 1950s.

Four phases in the sexual response cycle:

• Excitement
• Plateau
• Excitement peaks and breathing, pulse, and blood pressure increase
• Orgasm
• Resolution
• Homeostatic mechanisms

Men have a refectory period. That is, men have to go through resolution before they can repeat the cycle.

It was originally believed that orgasm is to reward people for having sex (and passing on genes).

But for women, it helps with fertilisation

Freud proposed that there were two kinds of orgasm:

• Vaginal (the ‘right’ kind)
• Clitoral (A ‘neurotic’ kind)

But it turns out that this isn’t true. There is only one kind (for both men and women).

Many men physically unable to have sex (ED) or may suffer from premature ejaculation. Women can always have sex, however, they may not desire it (it can also be painful or uncomfortable).

Sexual dysfunction in men and women often responds well to therapy. Viagra is the most successful drug in the last 50ish years.

There hasn’t been such a product for women, however.

### Hormones

Sex hormones: estrogen, and testosterone

In lower mammals:

• Females can be brought into heat with estrogen
• Males are much more difficult to regulate hormonally

The link between hormones and sexual motivation:

• Women are more receptive to sex during periods of peak fertility (ovulation)
• They dress more sexually
• have sex more frequently
• Men secrete more testosterone
• when they are single
• during socialization
• when they view sexual material

It is testosterone for women that the most arousal.

In both women and (especially) men, sex hormones “change with the wind”.

Yet both women and (especially) men’s sexual motivations remain fairly flat.

Both sexes’

We need some sex hormones. But more is not always better.

It is common knowledge that men often like to see, hear, read, sexually stimulating material. This is equally arousing to women. The more sexually stimulating material one sees, the less arousal it instills (increase tolerance).

There are documented adverse effects to the viewing of sexual stimuli.

• Especially those in which sexual coercion is the message. Such imagery can make the viewer more accepting to horrific ideas.
• Viewing pornographic materials makes sexual patterns less satisfied with their own sex
• Pornographic materials also make their own partners seem less attractive

95% of both men and women say they have sexual fantasies.

• 1/5 women and 1/10 men report fantasizing about being “taken” by a desirable person passionate for them. This does not translate into the real desire to be sexually assaulted.

This generation is the first that grew up with instant pornographic sex anytime.

Young people are having a lot more sex today then they were a century ago. A lot.

• At the turn of the century, 3% has premarital sex by the age of 18. Today, it’s over 50%.

Teen pregnancy is on the rise overall (although it waxes and wanes). Teens are also less likely to have smart (protected) sex:

• Ignorance
• Discomfort with the topic of birth control
• Guilty feelings with respect to sex
• Alcohol or other intoxications
• Wide availability of pornographic material.

We are the first generation that sex has significantly decreased than the generation that came before you.

The modern libido is way down today.

With the arrival of DSL (broadband internet), there is a 7-13% decline in teen pregnancy therein.

There is less incentive to seek these things out in the real world.

Sex facts:

• Porn viewed daily
• 50-99% of men
• 30-85% of women
• Most sexually active women use a vibrator
• Having sex at least once per week
• Lowers men’s risks of
• Heart disease by 30%
• Diabetes by 40%
• Stroke by 40%
• Dying before the age of 80 by 60%

More than 15% of women and 6% of men do not say that they are completely straight.

Who is gay?

• Conservative Americans state that about 20% of people are gay
• Liberal Americans put it at about 10%
• Census data and scientific surveys put the number closer 2-4%

Homosexuals are certainly in the minority

• Thus the human rights of this population must be protected

The APA dropped homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses in 1973.

• The WHO didn’t do so until 1993
• China only dropped it in 2001
• In much of the world, it is still considered a disease

It is not associated with any mental disorder or social problem

• There are no increased risk of any diseases in the homosexual population

Very, very few regularly go both ways (both sexes). But women are more often bisexual.

Eye-tracking experiments reveal that when shown pictures of couples:

• Men dwell on the women
• Women study both

Meredith Chivers had groups of people watch different kinds of pornographic. And asked them what they wanted to see. After viewing, when asked them what turned them on, they were consistent with what they said. However, the arousal was interesting:

• Straight men: consistent
• Gay men: consistent
• Straight women: aroused by everything
• Gay women: aroused by everything

Homosexuality is associated with increased risk of suicide, primarily in adolescence.

Male homosexuality is associated with dramatically increased sexual activity. This is true.

Female homosexuality is associated more with long-term relationships.

• But they also have more sex than straight couples

Where does homosexuality come from? The leading theory is that it is mostly genetic but also hormones (in the womb).

• The more older brothers a man has, the more likely has is to be gay

Homosexual stereotypes:

• Poets (24%)
• Fiction writers (21%) and
• Artists and musicians (15%)

We cannot turn people ‘gay’, we can just have them to go for something that’s not their first choice.

Homosexuality does

• Run in families
• Occur more commonly among identical twins when one is gay.

Homosexuality is not influenced by adopted parents (hints that it’s genetic).

Is it a choice?

For women, the answer is a somewhat equivocal “Yes, maybe some of the time.”

For men, it is a stronger “No, usually not”

The things that determine sexual orientation may be only in utero.

One fairly reliable difference between gay men and heterosexual men and women is a cell cluster in the hypothalamus.

Homosexual men tend to have more homosexual on their mother’s side of the family.

How can it be that we have gay genes? Wouldn’t evolution filter this out?

The data suggests that these genes allow women to be more desirable to men.

In the rats that were given hormones “prenatal” resulted in “gay” rats.

Male brains tend to be better at spatial tasks

• Gay men act like women in these tasks

Lesbian women aren’t as sensitive to crying babies than in straight women.

Homosexuality is largely biologically based, but maybe not particularly genetically so.

Sexual intimacy is an expression of a profoundly social nature. It adds to our sense of belonging.

We have a profound need to belong.

• The ultimate sense of belonging comes from being in a loving relationship

### Belonging

When we form groups that then disperse, we vow to “keep in touch”

When relationships break down, we are unhappy.

“Chain migration” makes life a lot easier for the subsequent families upon arrival in our string land

• Think about the China town example

Failure to belong can be devastating

• Why time-outs work

What happens to people who never really belong?

• They become unpleasant

People derives satisfaction from working

When we are working, we can get “in the zone” and the work itself becomes the reward (this is called flow).

Personnel psychologists work with organizations to devise methods to

• Recruit
• Evaluate
• Train
• Increase the productivity

Interviews aren’t very good at seeing how people will perform

# Emotions

What is an emotion?

• Why do we have emotions?
• Where do emotions come from?

Emotions can’t exist just to give us interesting experiences. They must be beneficial for the survival of our species.

They can arousing psychological states that lead to expressive behavior

Are emotions caused by the actions/reactions or do the emotions cause them?

William James said “We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, and afraid because we tremble”

Fear, anger, and passion have the same reaction so how do we know the difference?

James-Lange theory would suggest that those who are paralyzed don’t feel as strong of emotions and the data supports this.

There is clear support for the Cannon-Bard theory (which states that you look down at your reactions to cause emotions) as well. If you are expected wind, you are less likely to interpret it as an animal.

Negative emotions are linked to the right hemisphere

Positive emotions are linked to the left hemisphere

Depending on your state of arousal, you respond to things differently.

• If you went on a run and found a loved one, you will be more excited then if you just woke up from a nap.

Recall psychoactive drugs. Choosing to use was a key ingredient of enjoying using.

Scientists have used drugs to alter our states of psychological arousal. It’s not sufficient for a true emotion, however. You need the cognitive thoughts.

• If biochemistry is all there is to explain emotions, all subjects should react the same (not dependent on the cognitive thought processes). This, however, is not the case.

Physiological states are an important part of emotion, still.

People often “catch” the emotions of other people – they are contagious.

There is a powerful connection between our control/power over ourselves and our emotions. We can not enjoy seemingly pleasurable things if they aren’t controlled by us – if we are primed in a certain way.

Priming works with emotions as well.

• We can change people’s state of minds even if the subjects aren’t aware of the stimuli

Jospeph LeDoux’s “low road”

• Goes right to our emotions and skips our concious awareness

Even if we aren’t intellectually afraid of spiders, if one fell on your lap right now, you would jump.

Often, our unconscious mind can override our cognitive, thinking, emotive mind despite ourselves.

• For example, the “beer test” is a great predictor on election results. That is, who is the best to have a beer with?

### Expressing and Detecting Emotion

We all wear our emotions on our sleeves:

• Handshake
• Averted gaze
• Lingering eye contact
• A smile

We can tell the tone of a speech in another language.

People who are acting inappropriately “pop out” to us.

We can often see a bad actor when we see one.

Can we tell when people are lying?

We are readily biased in our perception of emotion by our past experiences

• Children who were abused were likely to say a face was angry much before the other children do

Prof. Judy Hall’s “thin slices”

• Take a small piece of people’s conversation and then ask subjects to analyse people’s emotions and relationships
• College women do better than college men in all of these questions

Women display great ability to detect emotions.

Women’s nonverbal sensitivity (likely) underpins their greater emotional fluency

• Women display greater emotional responsiveness (except for anger)

Women identify as more empathetic than men.

• However, men and women can identify emotions just as well
• However, women can put themselves in the person’s shoes more easily

The expression of emotion is also gendered. We emote differently.

Smell research

• Males can detect females’ smell and vice versa

There is also a role of olfaction in emotion.

### Emotion and Culture

How universal are these emotions?

Why is this:

• Is We live in a world that is interconnected or
• Do we carry our emotions in our genes?

We carry then in our genes. Even the most isolated people on earth show their emotions the exact same way.

They, however, are still influenced by culture.

Facial expressions do contain “accents” that can provide clues to their culture.

We can detect our own culture’s emotions better, but we are very good with everyone.

The blind also have the same facial expressions.

We are good at seeing the emotions of other animals as well.

Emotional expression is inherently social. There is no point in doing it by yourself.

It also makes the emotion more powerful. The act of emoting increases the feeling of the emotion.

• When you do this, you enhance your emotions

Even if you don’t do it yourself, if your eyes are pinched together, you will feel more angry.

How many emotions are there? There is no agreement; maybe 10.

But what about the other emotions such as love and jealousy?

• These might be combinations of emotions

Piaget: Just as we develop cognitively and morally, in stages, so too might we develop emotional in stages.

Disgust

• An emotion that originates from the mouth, however, we can be disgusted by abstract ideas.
• Children start by being okay drinking liquid when there used to be a bug in it, whereas older children don’t.

### Anger

Anger is, by some accounts, the easiest to detect emotion.

Chronic anger can be debilitating

What is good advice for anger?

There is mixed evidence?

• Is it a good idea to confront the person to made you angry?
• First, you have to attack the person that actually wronged you, the counterattack is justified, and the provocateur is not intimidating.
• What about venting?
• Primarily in individualistic cultures
• Catharsis doesn’t work with sex, so would it work here?
• Catharsis has two major downfalls:
• Darwin suggested that acting our emotions increases them
• Second remember operant conditioning
• Even if we are successful in alleviating our anger by acting out rage, then this will reinforce acting out rage. This is negative reinforcement

What’s the ideal way to deal with anger?

• Just letting time pass is a good way to go
• Engage in positive activities (also, you can reinforce the positive activities)
• Talk it out. It’s beneficial

### Happiness

We make better decisions when we are happy.

Women who looked happier in their yearbook photos in 1950 have happier lives in their midlife.

The “feel-good, do-good” principal. It is contagious

The day after a “bad day” is most often a good day.

Major disabilities do leave people a little less happy on average, but not as much as you might think.

73% of Americans responded that they thought they would be happier if they had more money.

• Is this true?
• Rich countries tend to be happier than poor countries

People’s income has been increasing over the past 50 years, and people’s happiness has stayed about the same.

People who describe themselves as being “hard-driven” tend to me less happy.

• They always want more

People who are happy strive for personal relationships.

Would utopia ever be possible? Not really, because we see the changes in emotions more than the objective reality.

We also comparison

“if you desire glory, you may envy Napoleon, but Napoleon envied Caesar, Caesar envied Alexander, and Alexander, I daresay, envied Hercules, who never existed.” - Bertrand Russel

Comparing yourself to those who are less fortunate, we feel better about ourselves.

Being attractive does make you happier. So does exercise, work, relationships, etc. The rest of it is people’s genes.

What can you do to be happy?

• Realize financial success does not equal well-being
• Master your use of time
• Act happy
• Engage your skills
• Exercise
• Sleep
• Seek and nurture intimate relationships
• Go good
• Count your blessing

### Stress

Stress is the opposite of happiness

Stress can be good – it can help people perform.

However, too much stress can negatively impact us

• Correlates to health problems down the line

The reaction of acute stress is typically elevation in adrenalin and noradrenaline.

Men tend to favor more aggressive means to coping as opposed to women.

The General Adaption Syndrome (GAS) describes the pattern of responses that the body goes through after being prompted by a stressor.

The death of a loved one, a divorce, or the loss of the job can lead to a prolonged sense of insecurity.

People die soon after the death of the loved one.

Market depressions don’t end for the people who are effected by them.

Stress also affects our heart.

Type A people are competitive, motivated, and quick to anger

• More prone to heart failures. In a continuous state of fight or flight. Don’t live as long. Type B are easygoing and laid back

Pessimism also seems to be detrimental to heart-health.

Depression, too, is bad for your physical health.

The immune system is a delicately balance instrument.

• Our mind does have the ability to control this via stress

Does stress cause one to progress from HIV to AIDS more quickly? Yes.

This, however, is not (as much) the case with cancer.

Stress also promotes unhealthy behaviors (such as smoking, drinking, etc.).

Alternative medicine seek to improve health in part part by relieving stress.

### Promoting Health

Give people control over their environment.

Being an optimist improves well being.

Among those 65-85, those at the lowest quartile for optimism are twice as likely to die as those at the highest.

Among those 64-79, answering “yes” to being asked if they were hopeful for the future was correlated with how long they lived.

Providing social support is critical to maintaining people’s health.

# Group Dynamics

We are social creatures.

Our social connections are literally lifesaving.

Recall how the text says that there are three levels of analysis: bio/psycho/social.

In order to predict someone’s behavior, you need to know

• The person’s traits
• The person’s mindset and
• The person’s environment
• It matters who you are with

How do we decide how to change our behavior in a given environment?

• Attribution theory explains how we change with a changing environment

However, we fall prey to fundamental attribution error where we fail to recognize the importance of situation.

• Common everywhere, but more common to individualistic societies.

Considering running into your teaching on the street. They would act differently (because of the changing environment).

To mitigate this error, you have to see from the other person’s point of view (literally – have the subject view a screen where the camera is pointed to them).

We also fall prey to the fundamental attribution error when looking at our past selves.

• We will see a different person in the mirror as time passes

Conservatives tend to see social problems as a result to personality believing that people get what they deserve

Liberals are more likely to blame situations.

Our attitudes affect our behavior and our attitudes towards another person can sometimes become self-fulfilling prophesies.

Attitudes can likewise affect populations and lead to large-scale shifts in behaviors.

Large-scale attitudinal changes come about through of two not-mutually-exclusive mechanisms:

• The central route of persuasion and
• The peripheral route to persuasion

Central route to persuasion:

• Reasoned persuasion

Peripheral route to persuasion:

• Doesn’t care about listening closely
• Listens to influencers
• How you can get wide-spread change

Once you develop a particular attitude, it is not surprising that you will adjust your behavior according.

More surprising, your attitudes to accord with your behaviors.

• Whatever you have just done, you can justify

Foot-in-the-door phenomenon

• Shows how we adjust our attitudes to match our behavior
• If we start with some small step against our beliefs, we are more likely to go further

This was very apparent in the Korean war

• They started with small tasks for the prisoners and then worked their way up

This can be positive, however.

• For example, if you ask people to sign a document saying that they are not going to drink and drive, those people are significantly less likely to do so

Our situations – including our social situations – also affect our attitudes.

• That is, when we adopt a new social role, we rapidly adopt attitudes consistent with that role

The Stanford Prison Experiment

• The purpose was to see how people change in different environments.
• Does your morality/beliefs allow you to rise above?
• Evil places win over good people

Note that

• The prisoners and guards were randomly assigned
• The guards were all healthy, normal college kids who have normal lives now
• The only manipulations were
• Create a “toxic” environment and
• Assign people with roles which (to them) defined how they ought to behave

This reveals:

• People will do evil when the situation provokes it
• In other words, social situations > traits
• Some people are more resistant than others, and not everybody is so easily turned

What causes this? Leon Festinger “cognitive dissidence theory”. This means we reduce the conflict created by behaving in a manner inconsistent with our attitudes by bringing those attitudes into agreement with our actions.

Why did we go (back) to Iraq?

• Do they have Nukes (WMD)?

When we realized that there were no WMDs, we decided that we entered the war to liberate people from Saddam Hussein. We changed our beliefs because of our actions. This is an example of cognitive dissidence theory.

By what mechanisms do social influences lead to attitudinal changes?

• In our quest for conformity, we naturally mimic those around us

This empathetic suggestibility can have negative consequences.

• School violence and suicides some in waves

How can we shape people’s behaviors?

• Consider the standard line vs comparison line experiment
• If there are a lot of people that say a wrong answer, there is a good chance that you will too

Features that strengthens the drive to conform:

• Feeling incompetent or insecure
• The peer group has at least three people
• The peer group is unanimous
• Feeling admiration for the group’s status and attractiveness
• Being scrutinized by others in the group
• A cultural (collectivist) respect for social standards, and
• There being no prior commitment to a nonconforming stance

Milgram’s “Teacher-Learner” experiments

• Told ‘teachers’ to give shocks to ‘students’ with an increasing voltage
• Students who did not partake in the experiment were then asked how far they would go and all of them said they would stop when they saw the discomfort in the student. This, however, was not the case.

63% of teachers went “all the way” even when the learning stopped responding (they thought they were dead)

• Of the minority who dropped out, most did so fairly early on

What this tells us:

• When attitudes and obedience are in conflict, obedience usually wins.
• Ordinary people can be easily compelled into committing horrible acts.
• Those who resist, do so early.

Being in a group/trying to conform can:

• Facilitate high performance
• Usually, simple, non cognitive tasks
• Inhibit high performance
• Usually with a cognitive task

Individuals tend to slack off when you are working with a group (ex tug of war). This is called “social loafing”. We feel less accountable – it’s ‘not our fault’.

People will often act in ways that aren’t parallel to their individual selves when they are in groups – people are sometimes deindividualized by a crowd.

Although conformity within a group is common

• Students who lives near each other in dorms tend to become more alike
• Over time, differences between group tend to grow
• This is call polarization

Polarization increases the prejudices

Extreme group polarization is the driving force behind radicalization.

Groups can also fall prey to so-called “groupthink”

• The Vietnam war is often cited as a classical case of groupthink.
• With Iraq, history seemed to repeat itself

Groupthink is not the fate of all groups

• Groups can be wiser than expert individuals (groups are worse when diversity is low)

Social control: groups are exercising some control over us even when they aren’t making commands.

Sometimes individuals, however, will act out contrary to what is expected (for example, whistle-blowers fighting for freedom)

When they are against the grain, an individual or minority can stay the majority (example of a peripheral route of persuasion).

### Prejudice

Individuals who adopt an unjustified (and usually negative) attitude toward a group are said to be prejudiced. Prejudice typically involves

• Stereotypes
• negative feelings and usually
• Discrimination

The most common prejudices are racial.

• It can be subtle and largely unconscious
• We often have cognitive dissonance when it comes to race relations

White students gave better grades to papers with a Black name on it.

• This is patronizing

Even black people have these prejudices – against themselves!

Everywhere in the world, women earn less than men

As we become more affluent, we justify our attitudes to match out behaviors – we feel like we’ve earned it.

• Income inequality is at record levels in the US today

Prejudice can also arise if one’s attitude is that the world is essentially just.

• People are quick to blame the victim

We’ve taught our children that merit alone will carry you to success – this is not true.

We like people that are like us. This is called an “ingroup bias”. The flip side is called “outgroup bias”

• We like having a scapegoat – it makes it feel better around ourselves.

This is just the way that humans think.

We are able to tell differences (in appearance) in our own group easier than those in another group.

• This is shown in infants as young as 3 month olds

Once we categorized people into groups, we can fall prey to overgeneralizing.

• Our generalizations are often informed by our most vivid memorable cases

### Aggression

When social relations break down, aggression steps in.

• Aggression is any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm

Aggression has a firm biological basis

• Changes in blood chemistry (hormones or alcohol) can increase aggression
• A Y chromosome is a genetic marker strongly associated with aggression (male)

Increased testosterone is associated with

• Irritability
• Assertiveness
• Impulsiveness
• Low tolerance for frustration

Aggression prone people are

• More likely to drink
• More likely to become violent when intoxicated

3/4 of incidents of domestic violence is caused by intoxication

In a study of every battery hit by a ball, it was noted that most occurred when either

• The hit batter was preceded by a home run hit
• The hit batter had himself hit a home run at his last at bat
• The pitcher’s teammate had been hit in the previous half-inning by the opposing pitcher

Contrary to the popular idea that poverty breeds aggression, terrorists (for example) tend not to be particularly poor or uneducated

• Most 9/11 hijackers were mostly wealthy, well educated men

Terrorists do

• Tend to be frustrated with the state of the world and
• are male

Violence pays sometimes – it can be learned

• The bully who earns the admiration of some peers while diminishing others may learn to repeat that behavior to achieve the status that it brings

Rejection, too, often brings about aggression

However, ordinary discomfort is enough to bring out aggression

• As external temperatures rise, aggressive acts rise in Texas

Key factor that leads to high rates of violence is cultures wherein paternal care for children is minimal

Even after controlling for education, race, income, and teenage motherhood

• Male youths
• From fatherless homes Are twice as likely to be behind bars

Aggression is something that can clearly be modeled (recall Bobo the doll).

Lenient parents (unconsciously) allow their children to continue being violent. And parents of delinquent children are often those who discipline with physical aggression.

More positive parenting can help you avoid aggressive outcomes:

• Change your states to reward based (you can call your friend once you’ve finished your chores).

Studies have found that viewing pornographic material makes one’s partner seems less sexually desirable.

• Makes men and women take sexual aggression less seriously

Some people state that pornography can serve as a ‘release’ or ‘outlet’ – this is NOT supported by the evidence. The opposite is, in fact, true; it makes people more aggressive in the real world.

### Attraction

Before love can blossom, often we go through a stage of

• Physical attraction
• Liking
• Friendship

Proximity. Just being near someone is the most powerful predictor of friendship. We like those in close, regular contact.

Repeated exposure to novel stimuli (including people) tends to breed liking to them.

Appearance is the most important component of a first impression – to the extent that it is almost the only important component.

• Men acknowledge this, however, women don’t.

Being with someone physically attractive is intrinsically rewarding.

• Being around beauty is nice

John M. Hull (blind) noted that he found women he was told were beautiful to be much more desirable dates.

• Other people can see you with someone who is attractive

Recall from obesity that there are disadvantages of being unattractive.

• For one, attractive people are (rightly) suspicious that some of their success may be due to their good looks
• In contrast, they (rightly) perceive that unattractive people who achieve success to do on merit.

One myth of attraction is that we are like magnets: opposites attract. This, however, is not true. We like people like ourselves.

Passionate love consists of

• Physical arousal
• Cognitive appraisal of the arousal as love

Over time, passionate love between two people fades

• In successful relationships, it is usually replaces by so called “companionate love”

What makes love last?

• Sex
• Faithfulness
• Sharing of chores

(Disclosure is also pretty important)

Psychological research confirms that these are important (especially #1), and adds

• Equity (related to #3)

Self-disclosure breed liking, which in turn breeds self-disclosing, forming a virtuous cycle.

### Altruism and Conflict

Altruism is the unselfish regard for the welfare of others. It is difficult to understand why we would do nice things to strangers.

Carl Wilkens stayed in Rwanda and risked his life to help the Tutsi when every other American fled. Why did he do that? To study things, we need to see when they break down.

Bystanders will help a stranger if

• The person being in obvious need of help
• The person in need is similar to the would-be helper
• There is a role-model for helping
• The helper is not feeling rushed
• The local community is small
• We feel guilty in some way about the sufferer
• We are happy

Helping is intrinsically rewarding. Social factors also play a role.

Conflict can occur on many scales, from the interpersonal to all out war.

Recall ingroup vs. outgroup bias and how our perceptions of others may actually impact their behaviors

• This causes the mirror-image perceptions

Sometimes, forcing contact between the two groups can alleviate conflict.

Providing groups with “superordinate goals” works better.

• The European union has linked its member countries economies with a shared currency (this reduced wars)

# Personality

Self-worth is a big deal with respect to personal happiness and wellbeing

you must learn to love yourself before you can love another

This may be true that we can’t do it well.

NUPath V

• Motivation
• Emotions
• Personality

Is this a good maxim? 150 words or fewer

This is due Thursday

Personality’s Perspectives:

• Development
• Gender and Sexuality
• Language and Intelligence
• Motivations and Emotions

We will discuss the prominent general theories that have been put forth to explain and define our personalities are discussed.

• The largest area in the field

This is the area of psychology where the field gets it’s ‘hollow’ reputation.

We want to figure out what it is and what it does.

• Recall that everything psychological is also biological

This is important because when we treat something with medication, we treat the biology. For example

• Depression
• Anxiety

Personality gives the framework for the rest of psychology (disorders and therapy). The theories are:

• Psychoanalysis
• Humanism
• Trait theories and
• Social-cognitive theory

Sigmund Freud: Most recognizable psychologist. Most people have heard of

• Id
• Ego
• Superego

He was influential as he brought psychotherapy into the mainstream, but he wasn’t right on that much.

People would come to Freud with pain that Freud couldn’t find any biological reason for. There could be something wrong with someone’s mind when they aren’t even aware of it. There must be much of the mind that is below the conciousness. The common metaphor is an iceberg.

Freud thought that the subconscious would show itself through:

• Free association (relaxed person say whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial)
• Studies of beliefs and habits
• Errors of speech (“Freudian slips”)
• Dream analysis

According to Freud, the parts of the conciousness (id, ego, superego) are in conflict with each other.

The id operates on the “pleasure principle”.

• Alcohol
• Tobacco
• Aggression
• ‘Animalistic’ desires

The ego operates on the “reality principle”

• How it can give the id as much pleasure as it can without punishment

The superego is the moral compass

• Tells you the right thing to do so you know how much you can do to get away with

Freud thought that our personality comes from our childhood.

Stage Focus
Oral (0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth
Anal (18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination
Phallic (3-6 years) Pleasure zone is the genitals
Latency (6 to puberty) Dormant sexual feelings
Genital (puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests

Each one of these stages is associated with a distinct psychological conflict.

Boys act like their fathers to get a women like their mothers. If you can’t beat ‘em (if the boy can’t get their mother), join ‘em (be like their father).

Alfred Adler: “inferiority complex”

Karen Horney: women have psychology too

Carl Jung: our personality comes from our “collective unconscious”

The role of the unconscious mind is very important. But it is very hard to verify these things.

But projective tests are made to give us access to the unconscious mind

Rorschach Inkblot Test

• Have some objectively scores
• Do have some validity
• However, they are limited in what they measure
• Show very low reliability (that is, they seldom yield the same answer twice)

The mind has its own defense mechanisms. Freud said that our brain represses our ‘bad’ thoughts.

• But what would repression do for us (In the Darwinian sense)

Three big tenants to Freud’s thinking

• We have a concious and mind interact to form our personalities
• This one seems right
• Unresolved, base sexual and aggressive tendencies in childhood result in disorders
• No evidence for this
• Repression is a defense mechanism
• Nothing that proves this. In fact, the opposite is true

Manifestations of this duel-track mind

• Blindsight
• Gestalts
• Implicit memory and learning and
• Perceptual, mental and emotional sets

These are all demonstrable and testable.

How can we confirm Freud’s hypothesis? We can’t really.

Humanism was largely a response to Skinner’s behaviorism.

Abraham Maslow is considered the “father” of humanism

• Studied healthy, productive people

The identified traits of high-functioning people:

• Self-aware and self-accepting
• Open and spontaneous
• Loving and caring
• Confident in their own opinions and
• Focused on problem solving (instead of what others think)
• Many, he observed, has been moved by “peak experiences”

Carl Rogers built upon these traits:

• Genuine
• Accepting
• Empathetic

One trick is to ask people how they actually are versus how they would like to be. How close are they? If the gaps are small, people are happier. If the gaps are large, they often suffer from anxiety.

Self-concept is important.

Humanism does, however, has its critics.

• Napoleon
• Dick Cheney
• Donald Trump

Are these people good? The definition of good is subjective. Having people love themselves too much isn’t a good quality.

Those who are the most happy:

• Strong social support from others
• Focus beyond their own goals

(Not the hard-driving type)

The evidence suggests that people are basically evil. Humanistic psychology has ‘won’ the pop-psyc battle, it isn’t all right.

## Traits

A trait is a pattern of behavior, or at a minimum, a disposition towards certain feelings and actions. Relatively stable attributes of our person that persists across different environments.

There are about 18,000 adjectives in English you could reasonably use to describe a person.Could there really be 18,000 dimensions in which people differ? We can, however, find the commonality of answers across a survey. If one question can determine the answer to another, then one underlying thing influences both.

For example,

• “outgoing” tend to like excitement, practical jokes, don’t like quietly reading.
• We just call this extraversion

There aren’t that many fundamental ways that we differ – we only have so many genes.

If we know that someone is an extravert, how can that predict how they are going to act across changes in environment?

• We need to be quantitative

We use a personality inventory to do this. The most common is minnesota multiphasic personality inventory. These tests are scored by computers and therefore are objective.

They ask you almost the same question many different ways to enhance reliability (That is, they make it so that the test taker can’t lie on it).

There are five factors in personality. We call these the “Big Five Factors”

• Conscientiousness
• Organized
• Careful
• Disciplined (Often have all three of these things together)
• Agreeableness
• Neuroticism
• Openness
• Extraversion

(Some people also like to throw in g)

These do seem to work across the world. These also stay somewhat stable across one’s lifetime. Genes are about 50% responsible for it.

Are there “better” personality traits?

• Well, we live in tribes so we need diversity

How telling are these personality traits?

• Generally speaking, people don’t surprise us

These are actually predictors of

• Mortality
• Divorce
• Career success

But for individual observations, they aren’t very good. For example, if a student arrives late, it could be for many different reasons.

In any given circumstance, these are weak predictors.

On average however, the extravert will tend to be more sociable than the introvert.

• Otherwise, the term extravert doesn’t mean anything.

These broader traits are collections of smaller traits that tend to change together.

• Fans of classical, jazz, blues and folk tend to have high verbal intelligence
• Fans of country and pop tend to be outgoing and conscientious
• If you have a messy desk, chances are you have a messy home

Our personality is everywhere. We are more “ourselves” in our personal, relaxed time than we are in our formal times.

In these relaxed times, “thin slices” as brief as 2 sections are telling. Although they often fail.

Behaviour depends on the interaction of persons with situations.

## Social-Cognitive Perspective

• Many of our behaviors arise from conditioning and observational learning
• What we think about a situation affects our behavior
• Our internal schemas, memories and expectations interact with our environment

Reciprocal determinism is the bedrock of the social-cognitive perspective.

• Behaviors
• Environment factors
• Internal cognitive factors

We chose, in a large part, our environment.

Our personalities shape our expectations and interpretations of, and thus reactions to, our environment.

Our responses to our environment change to it.

“No man, deep down in the privacy of his heart, has any considerable respect for himself” - Mark Twain

We need to recognize that we are both the ‘cause of’ and ‘consequence’ of our personalities.

### Control vs. Helplessness

Your perception of your control over your destiny can have profound implications for our well-being.

External locus of control: you tend to agree with “the world is run by a few powerful people” and “getting a good job depends on being in the right place at the right time”

Internal locus of control: you are control over your own environment

• Higher work achievement
• Better health
• Less depression
• Better self control

Self-control takes effort – physical effort.

The brain is a energy-intensive organ. It burns a lot of calories.

You can train self-control with exercise. Exercise also results in:

• Improved test-taking abilities
• Better self management of drinking, smoking, doing chores, etc.

Helplessness can also be induced. Learned helplessness was discovered by Martin Seligman who, found that it violated basic principles of Skinnerian behaviorism. He puts dogs in a cage where half of them had the ability to turn off the shocks. He then moves all of the dogs to another cage where one side gets shocked and the other is fine. Those who has control in the previous setting learned to jump to the other side. The dogs who didn’t have control in the previous setting did not learn to jump to the other side.

Learned helplessness increases stress. There can, however, can be too much freedom. This may be why in modern Western cultures which is leading to more anxiety.

The dogs who did not have control and still jumped to the safe-side showed signs of optimism.

• They personally aren’t up to some task
• The environment is such that success is impossible or at least out of their hands

Pessimistic students are

• More likely to get bad grades
• Less likely to change their behavior

Optimists think that things will get better, either

• Through their own positive internal changes or
• By making changes to their environment

We call this distinction the “attributional style”

• Stable vs unstable
• Global vs local
• Internal vs external

However, realism is also valuable. Anxiety over future failures can be motivating to prevent them.

Excessive optimism can blind us to real risks

Optimism may lead to overconfidence

“Pride goeth before destruction, and haughty spirit before the fall” - Proverbs 16:18

People, on average, think they are smarter than average.

• This isn’t just apparent with intelligence

Final Exam

10:30am to 12:30 on April 26th, 2021

The best way to see how someone will react in a situation, you need to put them in that situation (or a simulation).

Social-Cognitive Perspective: how people both affect and are affected by their environment.

We generally feel like ourselves, so does social-cognitive perspective explain everything?

### Self-Concept

Self-concept: how we view ourselves

We can also imagine alternative versions of ourselves.

• Both positive and negative

People are told to “dream big”. This means think of and aspire to your idealized self.

• Evidence suggests that dreaming can lead to a achieving (optimism is good for our well-being)

However, a lot of people consider their selves “self-conscious”.

We often feel like we have a “spotlight” on us

Gilovich et al. asked a student to wear a dorky “Barry Manilow Fan Club” shirt and walk around a party. The subjects thought that half of the people noticed the shirt, and barely anyone actually did.

When the spotlight is on us, the people looking at us actually just feel relieved that the spotlight isn’t on them. People don’t pay attention to you.

• People don’t care very much about you. They are probably thinking about themselves

High self-esteem is a feeling of worth.

• Suffer fewer restless nights
• Resist peer pressure
• Are more outgoing
• Are happier
• Less anxious and lonely

Most parenting magazines push heavily the idea that a high self-esteem.

• This isn’t a cure all, however.

Generalized self-seem may not be all that great

• They can be confident relative to the task at hand (and this is good).

If you have an inaccurate opinion of yourself, you won’t do well.

On the other hand, low self-esteem does seem to induce poor outcomes.

• If you make people feel badly about themselves (by, say, giving them a fake bad IQ score), they will be terrible things
• Be more judgemental
• Tend to lash out

Recall:

“No man, deep down in the privacy of his heart, has any considerable respect for himself” - Mark Twain

Is he right?

Self loathing absolutely does occur. This may not be the norm, however.

• We tend to accept responsibility for good things more than bad, and
• Care insurance claims almost always frame their statements as if it wasn’t their fault
• We think we are better than average

“How did I deserve this?” Almost always comes after a bad thing.

If everyone think that they are better than average, what is going on?

• People actually overestimate themselves, instead of underestimating others.
• This effect is more prominent in the West

Every generation does this worse.

Such high self-esteem does have a downside: a damaged ego is a quick road to nastiness.

• After a bad grade, those with high self-esteem will turn even more nasty.

Why do we take responsibility? One theory is that it is still selfish:

• We can’t be teased about it anymore
• We get assurance by others
• Protecting ourselves from making the mistake later

We also will accept responsibility for things that happened a long time ago

• “The old me was terrible. I am better now”

If we also say that our competition is great, then we protect ourselves

• If we win, it’s even better
• If we lose, it was ‘expected’

Comparing ourselves to people better off than us makes us feel bad

There are two types of self-esteem:

• Defensive self-esteem
• Secure self-esteem

# Mental Illness

“To study the abnormal is the best way of understanding the normal” - William James

Mental illnesses can do great harm to those they afflict.

When the system breaks down, we can tell how it works.

Therefore, mental illness holds great fascination for a lot of people.

Society thinks that we should view mental illness just as any other physical illness

• But it is fundamentally different. There are no objective diagnostics.

How should we think about disorders of the psyche?

How can we label particular disorders without stigmatizing the afflicted individuals?

• We are the mind. When we break our arm we say “I broke my arm”, whereas we say “I am depressed”

Three D’s that define if a behavior is disordered:

• Deviant
• Atypical
• Distressful
• Dysfunctional

Our standards also change

• Homosexuality was considered a disorder in the US until 1973
• A generation ago, a fidgety child would be called rambunctious, now, they would be labeled with ADHD

Often deviance is positive. We reward abnormal behavior often. It also needs to be distressful. It doesn’t have to be distressful to the person, it would just be distressful to others (a serial killer could enjoy it).

Where do we draw the line between free speech and mental illness?

In medieval times, “crazy people” were said to have had the Devil or demons inside them.

At the turn of the 19th century, we realized that people with mental illness should be treated morally.

• There is a biological basis for these things

There are lots of different things that can cause a mental illness

• Environment
• Or just the perception thereof,
• Personality
• Habits
• Social skills
• Deviations form the societal norm
• Etc.

These are things that a medical doctor can fix. The medical model can only take us so far.

It is possible that Anorexia and Bulimia is genetic to people in the West, but that is not the case.

• These are culture-bound syndromes, they are exclusive to particular groups and do not arise from biological differences

The central tool in the classification of the psychological disorders is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders.

• Official publication of the World Health Organization

A concern is that the DSM-5 is increasingly pathologizing everyday behavior

After 2 weeks of being depressed (say, your child has just died), you are labeled mentally ill. But if you want help for it, you have to get the diagnosis.

The DSM defines a diagnostic process that is based on symptoms. There is no causal basis for the diagnosis.

• The DSM does offer possible causes, however.

The DSM seems to be fairly reliable – the same person will get the same diagnosis if they take it again.

But is the DSM valid? They are increasingly capturing normal behavior as illness.

• The number of children diagnosed with disorders is 6 million, whereas just one generation ago, it was less than 2 million

There are benefits of a diagnoses (beyond getting therapy covered by an insurance company):

• Aid in communicating between care giving
• Provides a basis for comparing experimental groups, and
• Provides sufferers with information about what they can expect

There are, however, many downsides:

• If there is no causal basis for the diagnosis, they are at best arbitrary (these often are just value judgements)
• We change our environments, so the very act of labeling someone may literally change their reality
• When students are labeled gifted, teachers tend to give them better grades
• When they are labeled as hostile, teachers treat them hostilely

1970 Rosenhan study “On Being Sane in Insane Places” where normal people tried to get into psoriatic hospitals and then immediately acted normal again and tried to get out. They couldn’t and the people there still said that they acted as if they had a disorder.

Another institution saw this, they said that the same thing could never happen to them. So Rosenhan told them that he’ll send graduate students (but didn’t) and the institution ‘caught’ 41 and 42 possible pseudo patients.

There is a danger associated with diagnosing someone with mental illness.

## Anxiety Disorders

One of the major categories of mental illness is anxiety disorders

• Generalized anxiety disorder
• Panic disorder
• Phobias
• OCD
• PTSD

In generalized anxiety disorder, the patient is continuously tense and aroused.

• Sufferers can often maintain close relationships with only a few friends and family members
• Because there is no cause, they can’t do anything about it

Panic disorders are described as episodes of intense dread called a panic attack.

Phobias are persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity or situation.

• Panic disorders can lead to phobias by the operant conditioning process of negative reinforcement

OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, is characterized by unwanted thoughts and actions.

• When obsessions cross the line to being persistent

OCD is most common in teens and young adults.

• People with OCD tend to lessen in their disease severity

The Vietnam war left one in five soldiers with some degree of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

• Used to be called “shellshock” or “battle-fatigue”
• ~10% in those who did not see any combat
• >30% in those who had been in heavy fighting

By 2020, the military’s ongoing health obligations to its veterans will exceed it’s cost associated with active personnel.

• Unprecedented in military history

What do we do with these soldiers? Will we be able to get them the treatment they deserve?

PTSD symptoms are also found after

• Accidents
• Disasters
• Violent assaults
• Rape
• Terrorist attacks

Final NUPath

(Just submit something and get full points)

What has worked well with virtual learning? What should change?

Peer review: Just respond to people’s thoughts

Our dual-track mind underpins the problem of trauma disorders

• Those with active limbic systems seem to be more vulnerable to to traumatic effects

Bringing those who suffer from PTSD back to their stressful environment (and saying that it’s okay now) does not work – it makes it worse.

Women are roughly twice as likely as men to develop PTSD

Most New Yorkers after 9/11, most combat soldiers, and most rape victims do not seem to be traumatized.

• “That which does not kill you makes you stronger”

Post-traumatic growth is a well documented phenomenon.

Psychological: three learning process can contribute to the development of anxiety.

• Stimulus generalization
• Gunshots on the battlefield = busy city
• Negative reinforcement
• Alleviates your anxiety
• Observational learning
• Women’s greater empathy may be part of why they are more susceptible to PTSD.

Constant terror can shrink the hippocampus

• The amygdala is also always active (it can’t be ‘shut off’)
• Their ‘low road’ still works well. It’s the high road that regulates it that doesn’t work in people with PTSD

## Somatoform Disorders

Somatoform diseases: Psychical ailments with no physical cause

These disorders are what got Freud so interested.

Hypochondriasis is the common one.

• Always go to the ER thinking that they have serious disease

## Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative disorders: Ailments of consciousness

These are rare, frequently appearing in movies and literature.

We all experience dissociation from time to time (where our conciousness slipped away from us).

Dissociative identity disorder (DID): Multiple personality disorder

• People often don’t know that they have ‘other’ personalities

The reality of DID is equivocal.

Right after a movie about it, cases skyrocketed.

So who or what would be manufacturing it?

Patients might do it to themselves.

Therapists might also do it to their patients.

• They saw the movie

This is real, but we are making it happen.

## Mood Disorders

These are the “common cold” of mental illness.

Two categories:

• Depressive disorders
• Bipolar disorders (BD), known more generally as manic depression

90,000 US college students, 44% states that on one occasion, they found they were “so depressed it was difficult to function”

Depression is the leading reason people seek the services of a mental health professional.

Depression may be the single leading cause of disability.

How can this be? What would Darwin say?

• Stops people form doing things that just killed others
• Stops us and lets us reflect
• Helps us fight off infections
• Seasonal depression: helps save calories in the winter (where food is more scarce)

There seem to be links between depressive disorders and creativity.

• “Ruminating personality types” may be more disposed to creativity

The ultimate expression of despair is suicide. Suicide is universal, but there are marked differences between groups:

• Some countries have much higher suicide rates than others
• Whites are twice as likely to commit suicide as black people
• Women are more likely to attempt suicide than men, but men are much more likely to succeed
• Suicide rates rise dramatically in late adulthood for men
• Very common when husbands lose their wives
• Suicide rates are higher for
• Wealthy people
• Divorced people
• Non-religious people
• In adolescence, homosexuals (disappears in the mid 20s)

Going between a widely optimistic, hyperactive state called mania is the defining characteristic of bipolar disorder.

For those under 19, in 1994, Bi polar disorder cases rose from 20,000 to 800,000.

Mania should not be confused with happiness. Characteristics include:

• Talkativeness
• Hyperactivity
• Insomnia
• Loud, flighty speech
• Irritability

BPD is more disabling than MDD

• Claiming twice as many sick days at work (even when it’s less common)

MDD

• Nearly half the time, MDD people exhibit symptoms of another disorder (substance abuse or anxiety)
• Women are twice as vulnerable to MDD as men
• Most MDD spontaneously resolves
• Most MDD is antedated by a sad or stressful event’
• Diagnosis of depression is occurring more and more frequently and earlier and earlier in our lives
• Could be a result of authentic increase in incidence or that people are more likely to be diagnosed (they speak up more)

MDD is among the most researched of all mental illnesses. Thus the biological basis is well understood.

Biological basis:

• Serotonin
• SSRIs: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Learned helplessness may also contribute to mood disorders

• Women seem to be more vulnerable to learned helplessness than men

Negative explanatory styles hurt and lead one to become depressed.

• Self fulfilling prophecy

You may be in a vicious cycle, but cycles have a lot of places to break out of.

• You can change your environment

## Psychosis

Psychosis: Any mental disorder with symptoms characterized by impaired contact with reality, such as delusions, hallucinations, and irrational ideas

Schizophrenia is not a unified syndrome, but rather a cluster of disorders.

Delusion: Holding a belief that is not true

• For example, believing that they are Jesus

Hallucination: Sensory experience without sensory stimulation

• Most common is hearing. For example hearing Jesus

Inappropriate affect

• For example, laughing at a funeral

Young-late adolescence to the early twenties is the most common time of onset. Causes include:

• Changes in dopamine signaling
• Abnormal brain activity and anatomy
• Prenatal viral infection
• Genetics

Activity:

• Low brain activity in the frontal lobe
• During hallucinations, activity in thalamus is vigorous
• In paranoid people, amygdala is active

People are at a greater risk for schizophrenia if their mom gets a virus in the second trimester. So get your flu shot when you are pregnant.

What should we do when someone suffering

What do we do with people who commit horrendous acts while in a depressed and psychotic state?

• The famous case of Andrea Yates

The modern DSM diagnosis for “Psychopaths” and “sociopaths” these people is antisocial personality disorders (APD).

There is a strong genetic component to APD. How can this be?

• Low signs of anxiety when confronted with aversive stimuli
• This lack of affect, if channeled into positive activities, can lead not to sociopathy but to
• Courageous heroism
• Star-athleticism
• CEOs

What do we do when the illness makes it difficult to stay on the medication?

• New York is the first place to put into law something that can force someone into treatment

What about people who aren’t dangerous to others or themselves? Should we still force them into treatment?

• We need to be ethical – can’t treat them poorly

We got better at treating the mentally ill. Turned around in the 19th century. There are a lot less people in mental hospitals now.

• Some have argued that we have gone too far – people who need help are on the streets. Is freedom more important?

We have an understanding of the basis of the illness (not mutually exclusive)

• Learned
• Emotional
• Biological

## Psychotherapy

Three major schools of psychotherapy (not mutually exclusive)

• Humanistic (not practiced by name anymore, but still very influential)
• Behavioral
• Cognitive

Psychoanalysis still lingers on, but it’s adherents are few and far between.

Freud deserves a lot of credit for establishing the value of working through mental problems with a mental health professional.

We have a modern (false) idea of therapy of resistance and repression.

Transference means that patients will find themselves having very strong emotions towards their therapist.

• Freud argued that people often tries to get their therapist’s “applause and love. It becomes the true motive force of the patient’s collaboration.” He argued that the patient becomes dependent on the therapist (the therapist controls you like a parent).

Transference (though risky) is the bedrock of psychoanalysis.

• There is nothing that supports such a notion

Psychodynamic therapy is known as insight-oriented therapy

Psychoanalysis

• important of the subconscious
• Insight can come from the analysis to help the patient

### Humanistic Therapy

Helps people with their potential. Focuses on the future (not the past). Doesn’t focus on the Id, Ego, and Superego. Encourages people to take responsibility and control over their life.

Called their patients “clients”.

Attributes:

• Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
• No judgements, just unconditional positive regard
• Active listening
• Insight

We don’t have people calling themselves humanists, but this is now the style of therapy. The most influential.

### Behavioral Therapy

Only interested in measurable behaviors. Deals with the negative behaviors – not the states of mind.

The domain of the behaviorist is learning.

• Thus, the central theory of behavior therapies is that maladaptive behaviors are conditioned responses.

Recall extinction. Behaviors not reinforced will “decay”.

• Counter conditioning
• Exposure therapy
• Exposure conditioning

Recall habituation. If you are presented with a stimuli over and over again, you become desensitized.

• You start with a low stressor and work your way up

When the behavior may be destructive, exposure therapy is not good (ex drugs).

In these cases, aversive conditioning may be employed (ex making yourself sick after drinking).

• It needs to have something that backs it up
• You need to reinforce desired behaviors and not reinforcing (or even punishing) bad behaviors.

One example is a token economy. Such coins can give you TV time, snacks, etc.

• But now what right do we have to deprive people of these things without the coins?

### Cognitive Therapy

Behavior therapies work very well when a behavior is the problem. But what about things like generalized anxiety? What behavior is this?

Recall the power of positive thinking.

The goal of the cognitive is to teach people how think about themselves and the world.

They aim to change the inner monologue.

• Stress-inoculation training, patients are thought to speak positivity to themselves.
• Often times, it is the thought that counts

But most therapists are eclectic; cognitive and behavioral therapies are not mutually exclusive – they can be combined. Combination therapy has proven quite successful.

### Group Therapy

Costs less per patient

Socialization is also beneficial.

One commonly adopted group is a very natural one: family. Family therapy.

Labels can become self-fulfilling prophesies.

• Individuals within a family may have their “roles”
• Patients often don’t want to leave their families

### Does Therapy Work?

Is it worth it?

What is the most effective method?

• What about alternative therapies?

Outcome measure can

• Include patient reports
• “Stronger” if objective measurements of success are made, like
• Readmissions to the hospital
• Survival rates

The first measure of success of psychotherapy would therefore be patients’ testimonials.

• About 90% of therapy patients would say that it helps.

People will use cognitive-dissonance to convince their selves that therapy works.

There is a good chance that you will get better anyway.

If asking people isn’t a good idea, what can we use?

• Using objective measurements, about $\frac{2}{3}$ of people show improvement. But $\frac{2}{3}$ of people will get better without therapy. People get even better, however, when they get therapy.

The costs associated with some forms of mental illness (crime, accidents, loss of productivity) is very high.

• So therapy is actually cost-effective

And it works for everyone (from those with just day-to-day anxiety to disorders).

Therapy is most likely to be successful if the problem is well-defined.

• Generalized anxiety and depression are harder to treat because of this

Should we be doing therapy if there isn’t strong data to support them?

• Is it medicine? Should we treat it as such?

The scientific evidence for EMDR indicates that it does work.

• They are distracted as they recall the traumatic experience

Light exposure also seems to work. Shining lights can help treat seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

What makes a therapist’s relationship successful?

• Empathy
• Trust
• Caring

## The Biomedical Approach

The arrival of antipsychotic and antidepressive psychoactive drugs was in the 1950s.

Includes any prescribed medication or medical procedures that act on a patient’s central nervous system.

Drugs work. Rapid decline in mental hospital patients since the introduction of antipsychotic drugs.

Antipsychotic drugs (like Thorazine) typically act on the dopamine and its receptors (particularly the D2 receptor).

Antianxiety drugs (e.g. Xanax, Buspar) work to reduce sympathetic nervous system activity

• Reduces the fight-or-flight response

These are potentially habit-forming

Antidepressants are now often commonly prescribed along with anitanxiety drugs

Most antidepressant drugs are SSRIs.

Every SSRI works in every animal.

• But how? They block the reuptake of serotonin.

Drugs are helpful, but they don’t cure everything.

At least 75% of the effect of antidepressants is the placebo.

• Aerobic exercise seems to offer an equal-or-greater benefit
• CBT can work well for depression

Don’t motivate a depressed person.

For bipolar disorder, an antidepressant may not be the answer. Instead, a mood stabilizer (like lithium) may be the answer.

• BPD patients on lithium have about 1/6th the suicide risk as those not taking a mood stabilizer

ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) was first used in the early 1940s. While it has a barbaric image, it has been greatly improved and is now a very accepted form of treatment.

• Produces a seizure
• We don’t quite understand why it works
• About 4 and 10 patients in which ECT works relapse within size months to a year

There are newer, more targeted approaches to brain stimulation that work like ECT but in a more localized fashion.

• Deep-brain stimulation excites neurons by using implanted electrodes
• Transcranial magnetic stimulation uses powerful magnets to deliver an EMP to a specific brain region

Surgery to remove or destroy brain tissue is irreversible, and is therefore only used as a last-ditch effort to treat uncontrollably emotional (and usually violent) mental patients. It is called “psychosurgery”.

• Best known is the lobotomy. This, however, doesn’t really happen anymore.

Everything psychological is also biological.

• We aren’t evolved to live in the world today. We are evolved to be cave people
• Being like a cave person can help with psychological disorders

Consider the diagnosis of ADHD. People used to call it “just being an 8-year-old boy”.

• Very largely an American disorder (very rare in Europe)

We should change how we educate

• Children aren’t ‘designed’ to be in a traditional classroom environment
• We shouldn’t treat every child with medication
• There are side effects

Geel has a legendary mental health system.

• They house the mentally ill people in normal people’s homes.

Final Exam

Monday April 26th, at 10:30AM to 12:30PM

~65 questions in each part

• Cumulative material (through Group Dynamics)
• Higher-level. Not nitty-gritty details
• New Material